Georgia was the last of the former Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union. Congress refused to sit Georgia representatives or senators in Congress in 1869 due to the action of the Georgia legislature in expelling black members of that body. This was followed by an attack by a white mob in the town of Camilla, Georgia on a Republican gathering that killed 12 blacks. Federal military rule was reimposed in December of 1869. In 1870 the troops were withdrawn and the Georgia Congressional delegation seated, when the Georgia legislature agreed to sit blacks. By 1872 Geogia was firmly under the control of one of the so-called “Redeemer” white governments throughout the old Confederacy that used a mixture of legislation and terrorism to disenfranchise blacks. The Civil War ended slavery and preserved the Union. The Reconstruction era failed to protect the civil rights of blacks, a sad legacy that is still impacting the nation.