December 26, 1776: Washington Saves the American Revolution

Monday, December 26, AD 2016

 

 

Washington crossing the Delaware is ingrained in the American psyche, and well it should be.  Without Washington’s brilliant attack at Trenton against the Hessian garrison stationed there on December 26, 1776, his subsequent maneuver around the reacting British force under General Cornwallis, and his victory at Princeton on January 3, 1777, it is likely that the American Revolution would have died during the winter of 1776-1777, Washington’s army dissolving in the gloom and pessimism brought on by the string of American defeats of 1776.  Instead, Washington’s victories brought out fresh levies of patriot militia from New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware, strengthening Washington’s army and causing the British to retreat from New Jersey.  In the span of a week, Washington and his men altered the likely outcome of the American Revolution, and all subsequent history.  Here is Washington’s report to the Continental Congress on the victory at Trenton:

 

 

Sir: I have the pleasure of Congratulating you upon the success of an enterprize which I had formed against a Detachment of the Enemy lying in Trenton, and which was executed yesterday Morning. The Evening of the 25th I ordered the Troops intended for this Service [which were about 2400] to parade back of McKonkey’s Ferry, that they might begin to pass as soon as it grew dark, imagining we should be able to throw them all over, with the necessary Artillery, by 12 O’Clock, and that we might easily arrive at Trenton by five in the Morning, the distance being about nine Miles. But the Quantity of Ice, made that Night, impeded the passage of the Boats so much, that it was three O’Clock before the Artillery could all get over, and near four, before the Troops took up their line of march.

This made me despair of surprising the Town, as I well knew we could not reach it before the day was fairly broke, but as I was certain there was no making a Retreat without being discovered, and harassed on repassing the River, I determined to push on at all Events. I form’d my detachments into two divisions one to March by the lower or River Road, the other by the upper or Pennington Road. As the Divisions had nearly the same distance to March, I ordered each of them, immediately upon forcing the out Guards, to push directly into the Town, that they might charge the Enemy before they had time to form. The upper Division arrived at the Enemys advanced post, exactly at Eight O’Clock, and in three Minutes after, I found, from the fire on the lower Road that, that Division had also got up. The out Guards made but small Opposition, tho’ for their Numbers, they behaved very well, keeping up a constant retreating fire from behind Houses. We presently saw their main Body formed, but from their Motions, they seemed undetermined how to act. Being hard pressed by our Troops, who had already got possession of part of their Artillery, they attempted to file off by a road on their right leading to Princetown, but perceiving their Intention, I threw a body of Troops in their Way which immediately checked them. Finding from our disposition that they were surrounded, and that they must inevitably be cut to pieces if they made any further Resistance, they agreed to lay down their Arms. The Number, that submitted in this manner, was 23 Officers and 886 Men. Col Rall. the commanding Officer with seven others were found wounded in the Town. I dont exactly know how many they had killed, but I fancy not above twenty or thirty, as they never made any regular Stand. Our loss is very trifling indeed, only two Officers and one or two privates wounded. I find, that the Detachment of the Enemy consisted of the three Hessian Regiments of Lanspatch, Kniphausen and Rohl amounting to about 1500 Men, and a Troop of British Light Horse, but immediately upon the begining of the Attack, all those who were, not killed or taken, pushed directly down the Road towards Bordentown. These would likewise have fallen into our hands, could my plan have been compleatly carried into Execution. Genl. Ewing was to have crossed before day at Trenton Ferry, and taken possession of the Bridge leading out of Town, but the Quantity of Ice was so great, that tho’ he did every thing in his power to effect it, he could not get over.

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December 1776: A Dying Revolution and The Old Fox

Wednesday, December 14, AD 2016

The American Revolution was in the process of dying 240 years ago as General George Washington revealed in letters to his cousin Lund Washington who looked after Mount Vernon for the General during the War.

Dear Lund,

* * * * * *

I wish to Heaven it was in my power to give you a more favorable account of our situation than it is. Our numbers, quite inadequate to the task of opposing that part of the army under the command of General Howe, being reduced by sickness, desertion, and political deaths (on or before the first instant, and having no assistance from the militia), were obliged to retire before the enemy, who were perfectly well informed of our situation, till we came to this place, where I have no idea of being able to make a stand, as my numbers, till joined by the [78] Philadelphia militia, did not exceed three thousand men fit for duty. Now we may be about five thousand to oppose Howe’s whole army, that part of it excepted which sailed under the command of Gen. Clinton. I tremble for Philadelphia. Nothing, in my opinion, but Gen. Lee’s speedy arrival, who has been long expected, though still at a distance (with about three thousand men), can save it. We have brought over and destroyed all the boats we could lay our hands on upon the Jersey shore for many miles above and below this place; but it is next to impossible to guard a shore for sixty miles, with less than half the enemy’s numbers; when by force or strategem they may suddenly attempt a passage in many different places. At present they are encamped or quartered along the other shore above and below us (rather this place, for we are obliged to keep a face towards them) for fifteen miles. * * *

December 17, ten miles above the Falls.

* * * I have since moved up to this place, to be more convenient to our great and extensive defences of this river. Hitherto, by our destruction of the boats, and vigilance in watching the fords of the river above the falls (which are now rather high), we have prevented them from crossing; but how long we shall be able to do it God only knows, as they are still hovering about the river. And if every thing else fails, will wait till the 1st of January, when there will be no other men to oppose them but militia, none of which but those from Philadelphai, mentioned [79] in the first part of the letter, are yet come (although I am told some are expected from the back counties). When I say none but militia, I am to except the Virginia regiments and the shattered remains of Smallwood’s, which, by fatigue, want of clothes, &c., are reduced to nothing—Weedon’s, which was the strongest, not having more than between one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty men fit for duty, the rest being in the hospitals. The unhappy policy of short enlistments and a dependence upon militia will, I fear, prove the downfall of our cause, though early pointed out with an almost prophetic spirit! Our cause has also received a severe blow in the captivity of Gen. Lee. Unhappy man! Taken by his own imprudence, going three or four miles from his own camp, and within twenty of the enemy, notice of which by a rascally Tory was given a party of light horse seized him in the morning after travelling all night, and carried him off in high triumph and with every mark of indignity, not even suffering him to get his hat or surtout coat. The troops that were under his command are not yet come up with us, though they, I think, may be expected to-morrow. A large part of the Jerseys have given every proof of disaffection that they can do, and this part of Pennsylvania are equally inimical. In short, your imagination can scarce extend to a situation more distressing than mine. Our only dependence now is upon the speedy enlistment of a new army. If this fails, I think the game will be pretty well up, as, from disaffection and want of spirit and fortitude, the inhabitants, [80] instead of resistance, are offering submission and taking protection from Gen. Howe in Jersey. * * * I am &c.

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One Response to December 1776: A Dying Revolution and The Old Fox

  • I enjoyed “The Crossing” when I saw it in tv a few (several ?) years ago. Amusing that Jeff Daniels who stars as Washington also starred in “Dumb and Dumber” with Jim Carrey.

Washington Refuses to be Beaten

Saturday, December 19, AD 2015

 

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Each year, as Christmas is approaching, I think of a Christmas long ago in 1776.  The year in which we declared our independence from Great Britain was a year of military disaster for the United States.  Washington and his troops had been beaten time after time, and as the end of the year approached the Revolution seemed to be dying.  The British controlled New York, the largest city in the colonies and the major port.  New Jersey had been conquered.  The Continental Congress was in flight from Philadelphia, in expectation that the British would next move on that city.  Washington’s army had been reduced to around 5,000 ill-clad and ill-fed poorly trained troops, vastly outnumbered by their British adversaries and their Hessian mercenaries, all well-trained, well equipped, well clad and well fed.  Most of the enlistments of Washington’s troops would be up by the end of the year, and few of them seemed likely to re-enlist.  Defeat seemed all but inevitable to all but Washington.  In this hour of doom, he rallied his troops and launched the Trenton-Princeton campaign, which restored the morale of his Army, liberated much of New Jersey, and put new heart into American patriots everywhere.  Washington had worked a military miracle.

The feat is all the more impressive, in that privately Washington was well-aware of the odds against him, and feared that defeat was probably likely.  We see that in two letters he wrote on December 10 and 17, 1776, to his nephew Lund Washington, who ran Mount Vernon in his absence:

Dear Lund:

    * * * * *

    I wish to Heaven it was in my power to give you a more favorable account of our situation than it is. Our numbers, quite inadequate to the task of opposing that part of the army under the command of General Howe, being reduced by sickness desertion, and political deaths (on or before the first instant, and having no assistance from the militia), were obliged to retire before the enemy, who were perfectly well informed of our situation, till we came to this place, where I have no idea of being able to make a stand, as my numbers, till joined by the Philadelphia militia, did not exceed three thousand men fit for duty. Now we may be about five thousand to oppose Howe’s whole army, that part of it excepted which sailed under the command of Gen. Clinton. I tremble for Philadelphia. Nothing, in my opinion, but Gen. Lee’s speedy arrival, who has been long expected, though still at a distance (with about three thousand men), can save it. We have brought over and destroyed all the boats we could lay our hands on upon the Jersey shore for many miles above and below this place; but it is next to impossible to guard a shore for sixty miles, with less than half the enemy’s numbers; when by force or strategem they may suddenly attempt a passage in many different places. At present they are encamped or quartered along the other shore above and below us (rather this place, for we are obliged to keep a face towards them) for fifteen miles. ***

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13 Responses to Washington Refuses to be Beaten

  • Great piece, Don.

  • It occurs, Sir, that Madeira is the proper wine for Americans to drink at Christmas.

    I kept a few bottles about up until a few years ago, out of deference to President Washington. That is a habit I think I shall revive.

  • I agree Dave, although being a tee-totaler the question is of purely academic interest for me!

  • Taking time to thank God for our reluctant first President of the United States. Unanimously voted into that office. Thanks go to you as well Mr. McClarey for perspective.
    Keeping alive the spirit of hope in times that seem unmanageable. Washington called upon Almighty God numerous times and this God Almighty was none other than the Trinity.

    No. All religions are not equal. All religions will not guarantee life everlasting. God help America.

  • Bar none, George Washington is the greatest man in American History.
    .
    The British believed that 1777 would be “the year of the hangman.” The Continental army had suffered disastrous after disastrous defeat in New York from August though December 1776 and was on the verge of collapse. God Almighty and His servant George Washington held it together. If it hadn’t been for Washington’s brilliant moves against Trenton and Princeton, it may have been all over.
    .
    Truly, “First in war; first in peace; first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
    .
    On a humorous note: the kids were too young to understand when I used to tell them, “George Washington is the father of our country. Boy, did he get around!”
    .
    Philip, Truth. In fact, some religions are banned. Think the Aztec religion of human sacrifice. That is not protected under the First Amendment. Similarly, Islam and the Koran promote (go read it) hatred and violence against non-Muslims. The fact that a predatory belief system is countenanced by the failed regime and the effete, corrupt elites tells us more about them than it does about Islam.

  • T. Shaw.
    I believe what you write.
    Why do the elites want chaos?
    Is it power grabs and disturbance that creates division and within the division opportunity?

    The Koran and history of Islam is a feature we study at our Holy League gathering’s. The conclusions we arrive at is that we have a serious threat to the liberties we’ve taken for granted for so long. The cry from progressives is that anyone who tries to teach others of the threat, and to prepare themselves is in their minds a group of fear monger’s. Uncaring in the plight of refugees.
    Not true. The vetting process is hindered.
    We do care for innocent life, however we care also of the possible loss of our families lives do to terrorist infiltration.

  • Philip,
    .
    It’s beyond Orwellian.
    .
    Americans are afraid because the regime not only refuses to defend them, it feverishly works to kill more Americans. Obama is bringing (and the taxpayer is paying for it) in tens of thousands more covert mass murderers while acting to confiscate our means of defense. Why? Obama hates us.
    .
    Me. I’m very fearful that my enlarged prostate will have me running to the latrine before I can get some. I don’t need no stinking government employee to keep me safe.
    .
    Obama and progressive elites hate America, Americans, and the uses we make of our property an freedoms equally as much as do devout Muslims.
    .
    Muslims (often funded by Sunni Wahhabi petrodollars and the American taxpayer) divide the World between them and us; dar al-Islam against dar al-harb. It’s motivated almost 14 centuries of desultory invasions, mass murders, and wars. Muslims are expected to bring Allah’s word and will to all of humanity, by force if necessary, and attempts by dar al-harb (the house of war) to resist back must be met with fatal force.
    .
    There are three classes of citizens in dar al-Islam: First Class – Muslim men; Second Class (treated like chattel) – Muslim women; Third Class (treated like dirt) everyone else.

  • UN resolution 2117 dusted!
    In a 53 – 46 Senate Vote the UN arms trade treaty was voted down….thanks be to God.
    This resolution had 21 points.
    Number 11 calls for Member States to support collection of weapons and disarmament in all UN countries.

    46 out of 100 US Senator’s were willing to give away our Constitutional rights to a foreign power. Forty six. Disgraceful!

  • That is good news, Philip. It means one fewer unconstitutional gun restriction of which I will be in violation.
    .
    Re: the idiot progressives’ (I repeat myself, again) asinine gun laws, after the Sandy Hook massacre (It wasn’t me!) CT and NY passed laws requiring registration, or turn in, of so-called assault weapons and high capacity magazines. In CT, approximately 50,000, of an estimated 400,000, were registered, or whatever. CT did nothing. What could it do? In NY, many county sheriffs publicly stated they would not enforce the law. And, guess what: the NY S.A.F.E. law prohibits public reporting of compliance. It’s beneath Orwellian. So much for the idiots’ common sense gun control laws.
    .
    The idiocracy near approaches: 46 senators need to go.
    .

  • T. Shaw.
    “46 Senators need to go.”
    Amen!

  • PHILIP and T Shaw- you can’t hear it but i am wildly applauding your exchange!
    bravi gentlemen …

  • 46 Senators need to go

    Only 46? Seems to me we ought to turn out the whole lot of ’em, just to be sure.

  • 46 senators need to go.
    –T. Shaw

    They don’t feel the need. I’m curious, please reveal what you will do to make even one of them feel the need.

Washington at Bay

Tuesday, December 20, AD 2011

Each year, as Christmas is approaching, I think of a Christmas long ago in 1776.  The year in which we declared our independence from Great Britain was a year of military disaster for the United States.  Washington and his troops had been beaten time after time, and as the end of the year approached the Revolution seemed to be dying.  The British controlled New York, the largest city in the colonies and the major port.  New Jersey had been conquered.  The Continental Congress was in flight from Philadelphia, in expectation that the British would next move on that city.  Washington’s army had been reduced to around 5,000 ill-clad and ill-fed poorly trained troops, vastly outnumbered by their British adversaries and their Hessian mercenaries, all well-trained, well equipped, well clad and well fed.  Most of the enlistments of Washington’s troops would be up by the end of the year, and few of them seemed likely to re-enlist.  Defeat seemed all but inevitable to all but Washington.  In this hour of doom, he rallied his troops and launched the Trenton-Princeton campaign, which restored the morale of his Army, liberated much of New Jersey, and put new heart into American patriots everywhere.  Washington had worked a military miracle.

The feat is all the more impressive, in that privately Washington was well-aware of the odds against him, and feared that defeat was probably likely.  We see that in two letters he wrote on December 10 and 17, 1776, to his nephew Lund Washington, who ran Mount Vernon in his absence:

Dear Lund:

    * * * * *

    I wish to Heaven it was in my power to give you a more favorable account of our situation than it is. Our numbers, quite inadequate to the task of opposing that part of the army under the command of General Howe, being reduced by sickness desertion, and political deaths (on or before the first instant, and having no assistance from the militia), were obliged to retire before the enemy, who were perfectly well informed of our situation, till we came to this place, where I have no idea of being able to make a stand, as my numbers, till joined by the Philadelphia militia, did not exceed three thousand men fit for duty. Now we may be about five thousand to oppose Howe’s whole army, that part of it excepted which sailed under the command of Gen. Clinton. I tremble for Philadelphia. Nothing, in my opinion, but Gen. Lee’s speedy arrival, who has been long expected, though still at a distance (with about three thousand men), can save it. We have brought over and destroyed all the boats we could lay our hands on upon the Jersey shore for many miles above and below this place; but it is next to impossible to guard a shore for sixty miles, with less than half the enemy’s numbers; when by force or strategem they may suddenly attempt a passage in many different places. At present they are encamped or quartered along the other shore above and below us (rather this place, for we are obliged to keep a face towards them) for fifteen miles. ***

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2 Responses to Washington at Bay

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  • Washington recognized that God played a role in saving the American Army, beginning with the nor’easter that blew up on December 24th, covered the American crossing of the Delaware and keeping the regular Hessian patrols from discovering his men as they marched to Trenton. Most don’t remember that Washington recrossed the Delaware a couple of days later, encouraged by the rapid retreat of the British and Hessian forces back towards New York. Unfortunately the Cornwallis was able to reorganize British and caught Washington with his army on the wrong side of the Delaware. The 2nd Battle of Trenton could have ended in the destruction of the American Army. Warm weather and thawing mud made movement difficult and Washington, who wanted to retreat, was reconciled to staying in place and fighting a battle he would probaly loss. Unexpectedly a cold front descended on New Jersey, freezing the mud and allowing Washington to quietly remove his artillery and march his army around the British towards Princeton, where he routed a small British force and then escaped into the Jersey hill country.