And, in general, Cato thought he ought to take a course directly opposed to the life and practices of the time, feeling that these were bad and in need of great change.
Plutarch, Life of Cato the Younger
I think it would have amused the Romans of Caesar’s generation if they could have learned that the assassination of Julius Caesar would eventually receive immortality through a play written more than 16 centuries after the event by a barbarian playwright in the Tin Islands that Caesar had briefly invaded. It would have tickled their well developed concept of the ludicrous, judging from Roman comedy.
Caesar was assassinated because he had established himself as absolute ruler of Rome as Marius and Sulla had done before him. Once again the Senate was to be reduced to a rubber stamp. However, unlike the brief periods of one man rule engaged in by Marius and Sulla, Caesar, a much abler man, was clearly aiming to turn Rome into a monarchy to be ruled by him alone, and his successors after him. The Republic, dying for the last half century, was now dead and Caesar was the undertaker. However, some Romans refused to accept this fact. Foremost among them was Cato the Younger. A living anachronism, Cato longed for the Republic that his ancestor Cato the Elder had lived in a century and a half before, and stood against those who sought to hurry on the death of the Republic. Fate has allowed only one speech of Cato to survive, his powerful brief oration that convinced the Senators to impose the death penalty on the Cataline conspirators. In this speech we see Cato’s love of the Republic and his clear eyed awareness that it was unlikely to survive the corrupt generation among whom he lived. Cato understood that the Republic was a lost cause, but he viewed this lost cause as worth fighting for and dying for. Here is the text of his speech: