What’s Done Is Done . . .

Tuesday, November 6, AD 2012

Now that the polls are closed in the great swing state of Ohio that I call home, I am more reserved than I was all day.  Except for the counting, the re-counting, the hanging chads (electronic or otherwise), and the law suits that no doubt have already been drafted and need only be filed … what’s done is done.  The winner has been picked and only needs revealed.  As I, along with the nation, anxiously await the results, a thought struck me, not like a ton of bricks, but more like a whispered prayer.

The great miracle of history is how the God of the universe manages blessing in all situations.  This is obvious in cases where good triumphs over evil.  Yet the contradiction of the Cross demonstrates blessing even in the darkest moments of humanity.

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7 Responses to What’s Done Is Done . . .

  • No matter what, things will work out.

    Can be very, very painful on the way, but things work out.

  • Seeing the inevitable unfold… thank you for reminding me of this “the salvation of the world does not fall in the person of Mitt Romney, president or otherwise”. My catholic brothers and sisters in the states: you’ll be fine. Despite everything, you’ve done well this past 4 years and will do even better the next 4.

  • So much for the influence of Bishops telling catholics not to vote for those that support the evil of abortion. Catholics contributed heavely to President Obama’s re-election in the norteastern states.

  • Ever so little sleep and I woke with a start… I have the lesson from this entirely wrong.

    Secularism is the explicit turning from God to rely on man. Similarities there may be between the corrosive effects of wealth on empires but these are the symptoms, not the causes of woe. The proper parallel is found in the Old Testament.

    The OT is, essentially the story of God’s repeated efforts to turn Man back to Him alone.

    Adam relied on God alone. The First Commandment was satisfied for Adam could not help but love God with all of his being. Then God made Eve and the Second Great Commandment was satisfied for Adam could not help but love Eve as himself for she was “flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone.”

    They fell and turned from their Creator, learning to place trust in themselves rather than God. Indeed, Adam was thrust out of God’s protection and nature was set against him. Cain kills Abel because God receives Abel’s sacrifice and blesses him for it – in essence, because Abel places his trust in God rather than his own strength, God blesses him, He restores some measure of His protection.

    The Old Testament is replete with variation on this theme.

    Abraham is blessed because he places his trust in God’s strength, not his own. Isaac and Jacob too. We see David vacillating between a state of complete trust in the Lord and trust only in Man. We see God blessing the Israelites only when they place their trust EXCLUSIVELY in His strength rather than their own. He uses elaborate schemes to dwindle the strength of the Israelite forces so that no one can claim that it was Man’s strength that won the day. They march around Jericho blowing trumpets and men who drink directly from the Jordan rather than cupping the water and drinking from their hands are unworthy to face their foes.

    Again and again we see this theme – that you are on your own when you trust in Man. Only completely giving yourself over to God is acceptable to Him.

    The message I should have taken from tonight is that America is being left to our own devices to teach us the same lesson He has been trying to teach our beloved race since the beginning; that we can do nothing good independent of Him.

    As America has turned more and more to the strength of Man – our ingenuity, our intellect, our passions – we have adopted a philosophy that justifies our turning from Him – Secularism. We re-cast our history to show religious fervor as the enemy of Reason so as to convince othrs that salvation for Man rests in the restraints of Reason – as though Reason can restrain Satan, that great delusional beast whose Reason failed him as assuredly as did his Faith.

    Obama is an emblem, a sign of a deeper cancer, gnawing at the body politic. He is the dark bruise on the flesh of the fruit, indicating and yet hiding the putrification beneath. The key then is not to find the right people to lead us, but to let it go and trust that nothing but He that Is can take care of us, that no amount of vetting, spinning, polling, or messaging will make things right, that the “reasonable” thing to do is abandon Reason and put our trust only in Him.

    Weird. It took a sleepless, depressed night to see what is repeatedly and specifically stated in Sacred Scripture.

    How’d I miss THAT.

    Good night friends. I am going to sleep now and let God take care of tomorrow.

    Vivat Jesus!

  • I haven’t slept all night, either. I just couldn’t fathom the stupidity. Thanks, G-Veg; your message is right on the money. I am going to sleep now, too.

  • Today, right now, there are millions of souls in Purgatory who need our prayers. If I spent half the time praying that I spend whining, I could clear out a good chunk of Purgatory myself.

    Anyway, it’s November. If you’re feeling sad and impotent today, we can do something that can concretely change the lives of those who need us.

A Lesson on Election Principles from the Left: Did Wright Get it Right?

Sunday, November 4, AD 2012

I saw the following quotation this morning on Facebook:

I wish my moderate Republican friends would simply be honest. They all say they’re voting for Romney because of his economic policies, and that they disagree with him on gay rights. Fine. Then look me in the eye, speak with a level clear voice, and say, “My taxes and take-home pay mean more than your fundamental civil rights, the sanctity of your marriage, your right to visit an ailing spouse in the hospital, your dignity as a citizen of this country, your healthcare, your right to inherit, the mental welfare and emotional well-being of your youth, and your very personhood.” It’s like voting for George Wallace during the Civil Rights movements, and apologizing for his racism. You’re still complicit. You’re still perpetuating anti-gay legislation and cultural homophobia. You don’t get to walk away clean, because you say you “disagree” with your candidate on these issues.

– Pulitzer and Tony winning playwright Doug Wright

In the quest for finding a grain of truth amidst even the most confused of statements, I think Mr. Wright has something to offer my Catholic friends who lean Democrat.  Granted, “fundamental rights” has been misunderstood and misrepresented by the playwright.  For instance, health care and the “right to inherit” seem at the very least questionable as “basic human rights.”  Alas, such is the problem with modern rights language to begin with.  French jurist Michael Villey argued that the understanding of rights as a subjective entitlements was an innovation of the nominalist revolution and that it is Utopian, arbitrary, and ultimately sterile.  We see the fruits of this language every time someone like Doug Wright invents a so-called “right” out of thin air.  Then there is the misunderstanding of the nature of marriage, along with the misidentification of life choices with “personhood.”

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7 Responses to A Lesson on Election Principles from the Left: Did Wright Get it Right?

  • if I thought voting for Romney was voting to deny people ” fundamental civil rights, the sanctity of marriage, the right to visit an ailing spouse in the hospital, their dignity as a citizen of this country, healthcare, the right to inherit, the mental welfare and emotional well-being of youth, and their very personhood.” of course I wouldn’t vote for him. The thing is: NONE OF THAT IS TRUE.

  • Wright says :I wish my moderate Republican friends would simply be honest. They ALL say they’re voting for Romney because of his economic policies, and that they disagree with him on gay rights.”

    The “ALL” is the tipoff that this is written in an office without asking anyone about anything. This is a manufactured piece of writing apart from the usual language salad of the left. Either that or he only has one or two such friends (cf Pauline Kael). Come to think of it I just read that now 41% of US babies are born to unmarried women, another “right” celebrated by the Left. All of these are nothing more than components in the Leftist destruction of the family to exalt the State. Economic freedom, the family, a free press, and religion are all threats to the Leftists.

  • What Anzline said.

    No matter who wins, in four years, abortion will be legal and the Hyde Amendment, which blocks federal funding for most abortions, will be the law of the land.

    I count 5-6 votes currently on SCOTUS to strike down DOMA. Possibly 8. Gay marriage will be decided in the courts, not by the executive.

    The courts will strike down the HHS Mandate as applied to religious institutions. It will be 9-0.

    So, I vote on fiscal policy and foreign policy, because those are the most important things the President does.

  • By my count Michael Barone, Dick Morris and George Will have it as a landslide for Romney.

    This won’t be like Pernell Whitaker vs Julio Cesar Chavez back in ’93.

    More like Tyson vs Bruno

    3rd Round TKO !

    Believe it !!

  • I never heard of Doug Wright. I don’t think I could care less about Pullitzer. Finally, I wouldn’t go to most B’way plays, if they paid me.

    However, I got a “kick” out of both his deficit of humility and his infallible ignorance.

    I have a comment for self-proclaimed catholics that vote democrat: Do you really want four more years of this misery?

  • I honestly don’t get this “denying my personhood” rhetoric. Well I do get it, but it’s hysteria.

    i mean the same people who claim same-sex marriage is The Issue of Our Time, are the first to argue about how cohabitation really isn’t that big a deal, not everyone has to get married, marriage is just a piece of paper anyway, etc. etc.

    so what gives? Is it just that they need the “right” because otherwise America supposedly hates gay people, but whether or not they use it (nevermind people like Dan Savage and Andrew Sullivan who are not monogamous and advocate against it — just a small detail you see) doesn’t really matter.

  • Here’s a compromise that the people on Wright’s side will never accept:

    Homosexuals are not banned from adoption (this is already the case,) but heterosexual couples are given some form of preference. Catholic Charities is not forced to adopt to homosexual couples. Kids are not taught the concept of homosexuality/transsexuality in school at young ages. People acknowledge (which they already seem to do with the LGBT acronym, though it’s unclear how seriously the gay Left considers the bisexual part of this equation) that not 100% of homosexuality is innate, as seen with “hasbians” and bisexuals, and that for these people it is better to be in a heterosexual relationship as gender obviously has a much bigger impact on raising kids than race.

    none of this is possible if same-sex marriage is legalized.

8 Responses to The Consequence of Irresponsible Choices …

The Unconscionable Conscience of Joe Biden

Sunday, October 14, AD 2012


There is probably no clause more misinterpreted in the Catechism of the Catholic Church than the conscience clause.  CCC #1790 states:

A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself. Yet it can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgments about acts to be performed or already committed.

“There,” some will say, “The Catechism says I am always to obey my conscience, and my conscience tells me that [insert heresy here] is okay.”  Of course, there is significant danger in tearing #1790 out of context from the other 19 paragraphs that surround it.  These are pretty important paragraphs, as it turns out.  They say things like:

Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment. . . . For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God. . . . His conscience is man’s most secret core and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths (#1776).


Conscience must be informed and moral judgment enlightened. A well-formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates its judgments according to reason, in conformity with the true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. The education of conscience is indispensable for human beings who are subjected to negative influences and tempted by sin to prefer their own judgment and to reject authoritative teachings (#1783).

and then the is this:

This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility. This is the case when a man takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin. In such cases, the person is culpable for the evil he commits (#1791).

and finally

A good and pure conscience is enlightened by true faith, for charity proceeds at the same time from a pure heart and a good conscience and sincere faith (#1794).

So here’s the deal in short.  We are in fact called to obey our conscience, but we are also called to make sure that our conscience is formed according to the mind of the Church.  There is a spectrum between the formation of conscience and an act itself on which one can fall.  The best place to be, of course is to form one’s conscience properly and then act in accordance with that conscience.  One could also fail to form the conscience, and then act in accordance with the malformation.  This is tragic, and certainly sinful if the choice to not inform the conscience was deliberate, but it is not the worst place in which one can be.  The worst scenario is one who forms their conscience according to the mind of the Church and then deliberately acts against it.  This is a grave sin indeed, and its perpetrator puts his soul in serious danger.

This is where Vice President Joe Biden falls on the conscience spectrum, at least according to his response in the recent debate as to how his Catholic faith informs his politics.  Here are the Vice President’s words:

My religion defines who I am, and I’ve been a practicing Catholic my whole life.  And has particularly informed my social doctrine. The Catholic social doctrine talks about taking care of those who – who can’t take care of themselves, people who need help. With regard to – with regard to abortion, I accept my church’s position on abortion as a – what we call a de fide doctrine. Life begins at conception in the church’s judgment. I accept it in my personal life.

But I refuse to impose it on equally devout Christians and Muslims and Jews, and I just refuse to impose that on others, unlike my friend here, the – the congressman. I – I do not believe that we have a right to tell other people that – women they can’t control their body. It’s a decision between them and their doctor. In my view and the Supreme Court, I’m not going to interfere with that.

Of course, we don’t know exactly what is in Joe Biden’s head – that is between him and God – but we do have his words in front of us, and we give the Vice President the benefit of the doubt that he expected this question, so he was not caught off guard.  His response, therefore, is both premeditated and an accurate representation of his position.

If we can cut through the prose, the key points are two: (1) Mr. Biden accepts the teaching of the Church that life begins at conception, and (2) he refuses to implement this in his public policy.  In other words, the Vice President has formed his conscience according to the Church and is actively going against it.  We return at this point to CCC #1790:  “A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself.”

The response will undoubtedly be that there is a difference between the principle and the forcing of the principle on others.  For instance, while I believe that it is a mortal sin for a Catholic to miss Mass on Sunday, I would not support a law in which Catholics are yanked out of their beds on Sunday morning by the local police in order to force them to attend their local parish, (as entertaining as that may be).  The implementation of the principle is something distinct from the principle itself.

The problem is that this does work on issues of life.  For these issues there the implementation is the same as the principle itself.  In order to see this, imagine if Joe Biden had continued to use the phrase “murder” in his response.  After all, he has admitted his acceptance of the de fide teaching of the Church on when life begins.  His response would look something like this:

I accept my Church’s teaching that life begins at conception, and therefore that abortion is the murder of an innocent human life.  However, I refuse to impose that view on others.  The decision to murder an innocent human life is a decision between a woman and her doctor.

It simply doesn’t work.  In fact note that the above argument could easily replace the word “abortion” with infanticide and remain relatively unaffected.  In other words, if Joe’s argument is valid for life in the womb, then why can’t it be applied in the proverbial fourth trimester:

I accept my Church’s teaching that life begins at conception, and therefore that taking a three-month-old’s life is the murder of an innocent human life.  However, I refuse to impose that view on others.  The decision to murder an innocent human life is a decision between a family and their doctor.

Joe is trying to play the old, “You can’t legislate morality” card.  The problem is, we always legislate morality.  This is why theft, murder, and fraud are illegal.  Where Joe runs into real trouble, though, is when he leads off with his acceptance of the Catholic position.  At least the politician who claims that life’s beginning is an unsettled question is only guilty of bad science.  Mr. Biden is guilty of far more than that.

The Vice President’s final problem is that he does not actually present the Church’s teaching accurately.  He states only that the Church believes life begins at conception.  He misses the other important parts.

1.  Life begins at conception.

2.  Therefore, abortion is a grave moral evil.

3.  Laws must protect life at all stages.

4.  Laws that conflict with the divine law must be opposed.

That is the Catholic position, and the Vice President, in his comments at the debate, is guilty no only of the sin of violating his own conscience, but also of the grave sin of scandal by misrepresenting the Catholic position.
Finally, I can’t resist pointing out the irony of Biden: while he is so adamant about not forcing his abortion stance on the public, he seems to have no problem taking his position on free contraceptives and forcing on Catholic employers.  Odd, right?
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14 Responses to The Unconscionable Conscience of Joe Biden

  • Interesting. Uncle Joe is confused. Let your yes BE YES, and your no be no. Beware of the double speak. He is a liar.
    Please help him by having his local Bishop withhold communion until the poor uncle stops misleading the public into thinking that he is in COMMUNION with our Holy Church.

  • Unfortunately, all pro-choice catholics are completely confused & in the dark about this. There seems to be no reasoning with them. The bible tells us that sin begets sin & that the clouded mind cannot become clear without the grace of God, which won’t help if the person wants to persist in their pridefulness. I just had a conversation with someone who said it’s not fair to force someone to stay pregnant when the pregnancy is inconvenient. I said that sometimes my husband & my children are inconvenient, so may I murder them? Those people never answer back when you use logic. Fasting & prayer are the only remedy to some demons.

  • In the name of charity, the good bishops should take faithful Catholic, Biden aside and tell him that his soul is in big trouble with the Lord. Politics aside, al lot of catholics in the pews will go to hell too if not in charity corrected from the pulpit.

  • “Finally, I can’t resist pointing out the irony of Biden: while he is so adamant about not forcing his abortion stance on the public, he seems to have no problem taking his position on free contraceptives and forcing on Catholic employers. Odd, right?”

    Logical thinking and Joe Biden aren’t even nodding acquaintances!

  • Missy

    You are right and Aristotle, the philosopher of common sense agrees with you

    “All wicked men are ignorant of what they ought to do, and what they ought to avoid; and it is this very ignorance which makes them wicked and vicious. Accordingly, a man cannot be said to act involuntarily merely because he is ignorant of what it is proper for him to do in order to fulfil his duty. This ignorance in the choice of good and evil does not make the action involuntary; it only makes it vicious. The same thing may be affirmed of the man who is ignorant generally of the rules of his duty; such ignorance is worthy of blame, not of excuse” [Nic. Ethics III:1-2]

    Aristotle spoke of “practical reason,” rather than “conscience” and that word has been so abused that I am not sure that we should not be better off talking “practical reason.”

  • You can’t Force people to Follow Catholic Laws…That’s as Bad as Forcing People to Follow Shiara Law.
    Religion is a Personable Decision…Not a Public One.
    Joe was Right.
    You can be Pro-Life…but Allow Others to to make their Own decisions.

  • historyforgotten:

    I thought I addressed that in the post, but let me try to be clearer. If we are talking about something that is “merely” Catholic law (like Sunday Mass attendance), you are correct. Religious freedom dictates not forcing this on others. However, issues of basic human rights, most fundamentally the right to life, are significantly different in this regard.

    I would ask you to reflect on this and to consider applying the same argument to a child that is three months old. Suppose that a certain group of people decides that life does not begin until a child turns one year old. Would you still defend your position that the government should not intrude on this belief and allow the killing of children up to the age on 1 year?

    If that strikes you as extreme, I would ask you to consider that it is probably only because the vast majority of people believe that a three month old is a “life,” whereas there is more disagreement over the question in utero. What, then, are we left with? The vote of the majority gets to decide the question of life’s beginning? Surely we can’t accept that, for if the majority were to change opinions with regard to a three-month-old, we would still find the act morally reprehensible.

    You see, it is not a question of Catholic law at all. It is a question of the natural law that is applied to all.

  • History Forgotten,
    Forcing Athiestic laws on Catholics is the same as forcing Sharia or Catholic laws on everyone else, so what is your point? If you force Catholic hospitals to perform abortions or hand out contraception, you’re doing what you’re opposed to… and you’re not letting others make their own decisions.

  • The problem with your reasoning is that abortion is no more a “Catholic” law than the laws against murder, theft, or even the law of gravity. It applies to everyone, everwhere, at all times, whether they recognize it or not.

  • historyforgottem,
    So let me get this straight, If I want to abuse my children it is up to me?
    Don’t think so.
    Similarly, the wrongness of slavery is not excused because some people rationalize that slaves are not really fully human.

  • historyforgotten,

    That’s the problem. People want to make the “life” issue into a religious issue. It’s no more a religious issue as stealing, murdering, embezzling, abusing, or any other act that society finds inappropriate.

    One can look at the abortion (even contraception) issue from a purely scientific and logical perspective, without inserting religion into it, and see that it’s wrong.

  • Put another way, abortion is not wrong because the Church says it is a sin; the Church says it is a sin because it is morally wrong.

  • Historyforgotton

    The Catholic Church has non-negotiables.

    Abortion is one of them.

    Faith formation is for all practicing Catholics however the cafeteria line is sadly popular.
    Because Joey has a responsibility as a public servant to correctly conduct himself in all matters of state, he should BE honest to the faith he proclaims. He is not in union with the Church. Unfortunately other catholics see this behavior and give creedence to his beliefs, not the churches.

    God is patience itself. Why try His patience?
    Forty years in just fourteen Weeks. Forty years of innocent blood spilt on our watch. Forty years the blood has been screaming to heaven.
    Can you hear it Joe?
    Can you hear it Joe?

    History Forgotten? Not a chance!
    The fear filled King killed innocents also.
    Couldn’t SHARE either huh. 50 million reasons you say.
    Looks to me that history has repeated itself, and soooo many new kings and queens.

  • Catholic Bishop Michael Schridan of Colorado Springs tells LifeNews that Joe Biden should not receive holy communion.

    This divide is important if confusion exists between being pro-abort and a Catholic in good standing.
    Once Joe recants his position he will truly be in communion.

The Delaware Legislature Needs a Good Spanking

Saturday, September 29, AD 2012

By now, most are aware that the State of Delaware has passed a piece of child welfare legislation that, in effect, criminalizes the act of spanking a child.  The language is subtle, but is general enough to be disastrous for a parents’ right to raise and discipline their children.  The key passage in question is actually a definition:

“Physical injury” to a child shall mean any impairment of physical condition or pain.

The synopsis provided by the legislature near the bottom of the bill reads:

This bill establishes the offense of Child Abuse. These new statutes combine current statutes and redefine physical injury and serious physical injury to reflect the medical realities of pain and impairment suffered by children. A new section provides special protection to infants, toddlers and children who have disabilities. The statute also expands the state of mind necessary for certain offenses against children allowing for more effective prosecution of parents who subject their children to abuse by others and fail to protect their children. The bill also re-numbers the definitional section making clear that the definitions apply to all crimes in the subchapter.

What are the implications of beating one’s children?  Well, that depends on their age.  According to the Home School Legal Defense Association:

Under the new law, a parent causing “physical injury” (e.g., pain) to a child under age 18 would be guilty of a class A misdemeanor and subject to one year in prison. A parent causing pain to a child who was 3 years of age or younger would be guilty of a class G felony and subject to two years in prison.

Of course many a blogger will be up in arms, and rightfully so, over the passage of this bill.  I will let those who have more of a aptitude for jurisprudence to dismantle the constitutionality of the legislation.  Actually, I would love for someone skilled in this area to address the possibility of “pain” eventually being interpreted in a general enough manner to include psychological pain, something we often deal with in the fight against abortion and clauses to include “the health of the mother.”

For my own part, I have only two things to offer.

First, this language is so ridiculous as to be entirely unenforcible.  Any time I cause my children pain I am guilt of a class A misdemeanor?  Do you have any idea how many times I violate this statue during a sixty-minute Mass?  A pinch here, a squeeze there, and yes, even the occasional smack upside the head.  In the course of a single Mass, under Delaware State Law, I could probably be issued somewhere between three years and three centuries of prison time depending on the weekend and sitting arrangement of my six kids.  And it gets worse for my three-year-old, in which the misdemeanor is elevated to a felony.  Good Lord, I wouldn’t stand a chance!  The weekend when I found the little booger dropping my keys behind the radiator, squeezing an entire bottle of hand sanitizer on his sister’s school work, microwaving his plastic blocks, and standing on the sink so her could see in the mirror … let’s just say that I wouldn’t get out of prison until somewhere between hell freezing over and the day the Browns win a Super Bowl.

Second, I thought the dialog with my nine-year-old daughter was entertaining:

Daughter:  What are you guys taking about?

Dad:  The State of Delaware has passed a law saying that parents can’t spank their kids.

Daughter:  That’s silly.

Dad:  Why?

Daughter:  Parents need to spank so their kids will behave.

Dad:  What do you think will happen if parents can’t spank their kids?

Daughter:  The kids will probably end up voting for Obama.

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14 Responses to The Delaware Legislature Needs a Good Spanking

  • The girl is wise beyond her years. I have no doubt that children who have never been spanked will be more likely to vote Democratic.

  • Look up the Fabian Socialists, HG Wells etc. Didn’t Hillary lead the charge for kids suing their parents?? All for the State raising the kids. Hillary won’t allow the kids to sue the State though.

  • Although I don’t believe that spanking is absolutely MANDATORY to establish good discipline (see: Nanny 911 and Supernanny) – I think that parents should have the right to determine the best way of raising their children…because not all kids will respond to the same style of punishment in the same way. Some kids do actually need a spanking – especially the ones who think they’re indestructible and constantly put themselves in danger…the fastest way to stop a kid from getting himself killed is to cause some pain so that they connect such actions with discomfort and learn to stop doing them. Getting your kids to behave in Mass is especially tricky, I remember being 6 and struggling to stay quiet during a church service…and sometimes you really do need to get their attention quickly and quietly (as the original poster suggests…a quick swat on the hand or pinch on the neck or pull on the ear so that they’ll be looking at you when you tell them to be quiet or face the consequences. 🙂

    It is rather troubling to me how badly we’re coddling our kids these days. it’s to the point where they literally think that having sex is a right that trumps everything else (how else do you explain them demanding that everyone pay for their condoms and pills and hand them out like candy in high school?) – and where they don’t understand why, when they leave college, have they not immediately become a financial success and been handed an awesome job.

  • We live in Pennsylvania but travel to Delaware to see friends often.

    The next time our youngest deserves a spanking in the First State, we’ll have to remember to save it until we pass inder the Welcome To Pennsylvania sign on Rt. 202. I imagine the suspense of the half an hour it takes to get back into the Commonwealth will be far worse than the spanking that would have been administered on the spot.

    Our eldest is eleven and we have an eight and a five year old. Our older two have been spanked perhaps five times for each. Our youngest has earned three.

    Spanking is a tool in our arsenal. It has been used primarily for the 3 to 6 year old period, that time where children are capable of knowing right from wrong but have a hard time connecting punishments with the offense if the punishment doesn’t follow closely on the discovery of the offense.

  • Ever notice that as more and more Americans have fewer and fewer children of their own somehow they get the urge to raise everybody else’s kids? But only by the remote-control means of imposing legislative mandates on their neighbors, no way would those meddlers bother adopting school-age kids or take in teenagers as foster parents.

    I expect the first few cases under this law tried in Delaware will be show trials of some dads. Also, I predict that this law will be shelved when it begins to inconvenience the most common perpetrator of acts of physical punishment of children – mothers. Prosecutors could perp-walk mommies past TV cameras by the dozen simply by staking out daycare centers.

  • Just another brick in the wall to establish that everyone is either an employee of the State (with its SOP manual to be followed to the letter) or a ward of the State.

  • Did you catch that at least 15 of the 23 Republicans in the Delaware legislature cast a ballot for this bill? We are all well represented, no?

  • The Ninth Circuit Court in California told parents that when the child crosses the threshhold of the public school, the parents have no longer have anything to say about their children’s education. Kidnapping by the state.

    Parents have custody of their children and when parents refuse to give “in loco parentis” to the school, everybody better pay attention.
    Parents may attend the classroom as auditors of their delegated power of attorney “in loco parentis” and cannot be prohibited from or prevented from ensuring the well being of their children.

    The state cannot be sued, or so they say, but the state can be held to keep their own laws. Cultural bullies do not own any child.

  • A second thought: If parents have custody, natural and legal, of their children, the state can only dictate how the state must behave towards the minor children of parents who delegate “in loco parentis”, the parents have the final say.

  • Jules Ferry, one of the founders of public education in Europe was more candid than most politicians, when he said its purpose was “to cast the nation’s youth in the same mould and to stamp them, like the coinage, with the image of the republic.”

    One might imagine that he was a left-wing ideologue, but not a bit of it; a leading figure in the Party of Order, he was the minister of Thiers, during “bloody week” (the suppression of the Paris Commune) and the theoretician of colonisation in Algeria. No politician, left or right, believes he can have too much power.

  • Untrue MPS. The Founding Fathers were always concerned with the Government having too much power.

  • No politician, left or right, believes he can have too much power.

    Michael, the people empowered by this are not legislators but social workers and various and sundry in the family court apparat.

  • Art Deco

    But legislators love to direct the lives of the citizens.

    “The intervention of the legislator in all things seemed to Rollin [the French classical scholar] so indispensable that he quite seriously congratulates the Greeks on the fact that a man named Pelasges came to show them how to eat acorns. Before that, he says, they grazed on the land like cattle.”

    That’s the spirit

  • But legislators love to direct the lives of the citizens.

    When you are tempted to make a statement like that, put in the name of an actual living and breathing human being and see if it makes sense. The people employed in the Obama waivers machine may like to direct the lives of others. My local municipal councillors manifest no such ambition. They spend more time than they would like to listening to people’s complaints and fussing over how to finance small sidewalk repairs.

Can the Private Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To? (Part III)

Wednesday, September 12, AD 2012

This is the third part in a three-part series.  Part I can be found here, and Part II can be found here.

The Philosophy

Once the numbers are put to rest, the rest of the argument in favor of private giving over compulsory giving via a system of taxation is easy.  The philosophical argument can be broken down into two parts: one based on human teleology and the second based on a phenomenology of gift.

First, all being is in the process of becoming.  That is, all being has a certain perfection, a telos, towards which it tends.  A chair has the natural tendency to tend towards being that perfect chair after which it was designed.  Aristotle called this the final cause, and noted its place of prominence among the four causes of being, the other three being the material, the formal, and the efficient.  Humans, however, are unique in the material universe in that we can actively choose whether or not to tend towards that perfection of being fully human.  This is the gift of freedom that we are endowed with.  Of course, this freedom is not to be seen as merely the ability to choose between contraries, but rather as a freedom for excellence, as the ability to choose the good.  One might say that the ability to choose the good is part and parcel of what it means to be human.

When a human person acts charitably he is acting in a way fully consistent with that call to freedom.  It is the virtues that perfect the human person, and charity is among the most important of the virtues.  The curious thing about the virtues is that the only way to acquire them is to practice them.  They are habits.  The only way to become courageous is to act courageously, and the only way to become charitable is to perform acts of charity.  Thus, when a person acts freely in performing an act of charity, he is not only helping out his fellow members of the human race, but he is also serving to become a better person himself.  Further, the free act of giving has an impact on the recipient that extends past the offered resources.  The recipient recognizes the act of charity for what it is, and that act in turn becomes a model of charity in his own life.

In contrast to this, compulsory giving has nothing of the benefits shared by a voluntary act.  The agent, being forced to offer the money or service, is not acting in freedom, and thus it has no impact on his life of virtue.  Similarly, beyond the actual dollars and cents, the recipient of the tax dollars comes to see the funding as an entitlement rather than a freely offered act of charity.  Obligation replaces virtue, and the obligatory acts freezes both parties at the level of obligation, not allowing them to advance in virtue.  It should come as no surprise that modernity find these ideas difficult to understand.  Ever since William Ockham and his fellow Nominalists, even general morality has focussed exclusively on obligation rather than virtue.

Yet the perfection towards which a human person must strive is experienced in the human heart as a call to gift.  The deepest desire of the human condition is to give one’s self away and to receive another who is called to do the same.  In a paradoxical manner, we find our fulfillment by emptying ourselves to one another.  This call to become gift explains a myriad of human experiences like falling in love, risking one’s life for a person in danger, and acts of selflessness that seem to come naturally.  It explains the natural institution of marriage, the begetting of children, and dying for a cause.  We seek forever to give ourself away.

This is precisely why crowd our rates are not dollar for dollar.  Economists may refer to this as the “warm glow” effect, suggesting that people give because they receive some psychological benefit, an injection of happiness if you will, from the act of giving.  While there is a grain of truth to this, it is not the whole picture.  People give because they were made to give.  They become fully human in the very act of giving.  Private charitable giving is completely consistent with this call to be gift to one another, both for the giver and the recipient.  It is also why compulsory giving in the form of taxation never settles well with the one being taxed.  Deep down, people want to give – they don’t want to forced into virtue.


The Theology

The call to charitable acts is prevalent throughout the Gospels, and indeed the entire collection of Scriptures.  As a member of the Universal Church, one cannot dispense with the obligation to assist those less fortunate among us.  Yet the call to charity can never be disassociated from the call to spread the Gospel to the four corners of the earth.  Pope Benedict XVI tells us in Deus caritas est:

“The increase in diversified organizations engaged in meeting various human needs is ultimately due to the fact that the command of love of neighbour is inscribed by the Creator in man’s very nature. It is also a result of the presence of Christianity in the world, since Christianity constantly revives and acts out this imperative, so often profoundly obscured in the course of time … For this reason, it is very important that the Church’s charitable activity maintains all of its splendour and does not become just another form of social assistance …

“We are dealing with human beings, and human beings always need something more than technically proper care. They need humanity. They need heartfelt concern. Those who work for the Church’s charitable organizations must be distinguished by the fact that they do not merely meet the needs of the moment, but they dedicate themselves to others with heartfelt concern, enabling them to experience the richness of their humanity …

“[C]haritable activity must [not] leave God and Christ aside. For it is always concerned with the whole man. Often the deepest cause of suffering is the very absence of God. Those who practise charity in the Church’s name will never seek to impose the Church’s faith upon others. They realize that a pure and generous love is the best witness to the God in whom we believe and by whom we are driven to love. A Christian knows when it is time to speak of God and when it is better to say nothing and to let love alone speak. He knows that God is love (cf. 1 Jn 4:8) and that God’s presence is felt at the very time when the only thing we do is to love. He knows—to return to the questions raised earlier—that disdain for love is disdain for God and man alike; it is an attempt to do without God” (paragraph 31).

Private giving is free to be an act rooted in the call to follow Christ and preach His word.  This also raises the practical problem of government funds applied to social causes.  When giving becomes compulsory, there enters the possibility, and perhaps even the inevitability, of the funds being used in a manner contradictory to the consciences of individual taxpayers.  Herein lies the debate about tax dollars being used to fund abortion and contraception.  Yet these two issues are not the only ones on the table.  Nearly everyone has a list of causes that would be objectionable to their conscience, and natural outrage would be expressed if they were to be forced to donate to these causes through the tax system.  This reality is often used as an argument for taxation: if we left it to the individual giver, would there not be causes that would go unsupported?  It is an illusion to think that taxes ensure a baseline of morality.  Instead, they merely reflect the opinions of those in power, those elected officials tasked with budgeting the tax dollars.

Yet it remains true that the purpose of politics is justice as well as charity.  Is not the function of government to maintain some level of fairness and equality?  True, but it would be a mistake to think that this comes in a manner contradictory to charity.  The virtues are never in conflict, but rather support and strengthen one another.  Blind redistribution of wealth through compulsory giving, i.e. taxes, fails to incorporate man’s call to charity.  Even if it would lead to a more just economic reality, the picture would be incomplete at best, for as St. Paul reminds us, without charity, we are nothing.  Yet this takes us full circle to the mathematical argument in the first section that suggests that the monies available to a social cause are not increased by government subsidies, but all things considered, they are actually decreased.  It is really a loose-loose situation.  On the other hand, if we keep charity first and allow private giving to do its thing, justice follows as well.  This flip side is a win-win situation.

Finally, to echo the philosophical argument of person-as-gift, Pope Benedict offers the following:

“Saint Paul, in his hymn to charity (cf. 1 Cor 13), teaches us that it is always more than activity alone: ‘If I give away all I have, and if I deliver my body to be burned, but do not have love, I gain nothing’ (v. 3). This hymn must be the Magna Carta of all ecclesial service … Practical activity will always be insufficient, unless it visibly expresses a love for man, a love nourished by an encounter with Christ. My deep personal sharing in the needs and sufferings of others becomes a sharing of my very self with them: if my gift is not to prove a source of humiliation, I must give to others not only something that is my own, but my very self; I must be personally present in my gift” (34).


The philosophical and theological arguments are clear: the world and mankind are better off if social causes such as poverty are funded through voluntary private giving.  Man is made to be gift, and he fulfills his destiny insofar as he gives of himself freely.  The only argument that could stand up against this is the practical argument that private giving would be unable to fund social causes: mankind, poisoned as he is by original sin, would fail to selflessly give what is necessary to solve the problem.  Whether or not a cause can be completely funded is not the issue.  There are many social causes that will never be solved this side of heaven.  The issue is whether or not government taxation has an actual positive effect on the particular social cause – this is where the mathematical arguments from part one become so important.  It seems that compulsory giving through taxation actually serves to decrease the amount of funds actually available to a cause.  Once the economic argument falls, it seems that there is nothing left to justify government involvement in social programs.

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9 Responses to Can the Private Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To? (Part III)

  • [C]ompulsory giving has nothing of the benefits shared by a voluntary act. … Similarly, beyond the actual dollars and cents, the recipient of the charity Bzzzt! Wrong, wrong, wrong – if it’s compelled, it ain’t “charity”. That sort of misuse of the language leads many astray via the Fallacy of Equivocation.

    Words are tools of thought. Misuse the tools and risk marring the work. Otherwise, a thought-provoking article.

    P.S. I look forward to your follow-on series, Can the Public Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To?

  • Micha,

    Whoa, whoa, whoa … (such is the only proper response to a comment the employs the phrase “Bzzzt! Wrong, wrong, wrong.”)

    I spend hours of research, hours of computation, and hours of writing to bring a three-part piece that tries to make the case for private giving over public funding … and actual rational and thorough argument … and you choose to pick on a single word? I try so very hard to be charitable in these forums. Those who have been around conversations in which I take part will, I hope, attest to the patience I usually have with people who disagree. The irony here is (1) I am quickly losing my patience with this comment, and (2) you don’t actually seem to to disagree with the post. Rather, you pick on the use of a single word. I feel confident that in the three parts, when all is said and done, I made it clear that I see private charitable giving as something very different from the funding that comes from taxes. The entire thesis, after all, is that the two are quite different and that the former is much preferred. Anyone who reads the piece for what it is will see this. The only misunderstanding will come from taking that one sentence out of context.

    I never claimed to be perfect – all of us write with imperfection. However, to claim that this single word “risking marring the work” is a bit of an overstatement. Honestly, it is times like these that make me wonder when internet writing and blog commenting is even worth the time that it takes.

    Defensive though I may be at the moment, I am also humble enough to correct the mistake. I have reworded the sentence, as I am sure you will see. In the future, however, while we are on the topic of charity, might I gently suggest that you proceed with more of it in the future when you choose to add a comment, especially with those writes that are on your side.



  • Great post. Pope Benedict’s writing on what charity is supposed to be was an angle I have not seen before.
    Besides the crowding out of private charity dollars, I think you need to add the fact that government social programs crowd out the private programs and organizations themselves. They do this in several ways. Besides taking discretionary income as taxes, those who push for government social programs instill in our society the idea that only government can do these type of things. Our country had a great history of non-governmental organizations that did things like taking care of the poor, caring for unwed mothers, even insuring against sickness and old age through mutual benefit associations. Most Americans have no idea that such things once existed. They have fully embraced the Democrat mantra that government isn’t just one of many institutions that make up society; government is society.
    Another way government has killed off private charity work is by regulation. Think of Mother Teresa’s problems getting a building in NYC because it needed an elevator, or the recent cases of individuals who were stopped from feeding the homeless.
    I have a personal example from a previous company I worked for. Up till a few years ago it actually had an employee mutual benefit association, probably one of the few left in the country. It operated as a sort of co-op bank and insurance company. It had to disband because it couldn’t economically comply with new regulations.
    Marvin Olasky has some good stuff on the history of private charity organizations in the U.S.

  • First, to Jake — I got a lot out of the series. Good job.

    In the interest of advancing charity, consider that Micha functions as an unpaid editor. He catches you on a word, you got angry (partly at yourself), then you fixed it. The paper improved.

    That’s the process. It happens to me all the time.

    And, Micha, don’t get too picky. You are an UNPAID editor, so don’t work too hard at it.

    Best to one and all. Now boys, shake hands (don’t kiss and make up, it opens another kind of problem).

  • But laws are an expression of the general will; they are made by those who obey them, not by government. Government is the appointee and agent of the people themselves, operating under a temporary and revocable mandate. Its actions are the consummated result of the people’s organized wishes. That is where the supposed antithesis between voluntary and obligatory giving breaks down.

  • Tony,

    I agree with nearly everything, and perhaps everything, you say. However, the fact that government crowds out actual programs, I believe, is considered in the dollar amounts presented in the literature, at least most of them. Herein lies the real problem in tackling this investigation. The professional economics papers were shockingly imprecise with their definition of crowd out. I can tell you that the theoretical, Nash-type papers presented the situation in whole, that is, the “cause” itself was grouped together, as was government involvement in the cause. In this case, “crowding out funds” is the same (or includes rather) “crowding out organizations.” However, in at least one paper that looked at historical situations and actual organizations, they presented the problem as it related to a particular organization’s funds, which to me suggests that your point would not have been considered in that perspective.

    Either way, there is another important economic reality when looking at your point (and perhaps this is what you are getting at). If an organization itself is crowded out, then there are good paying private-sector jobs that go with it. True, the government presumedly will hire more in order to perform the social service, but an economy that has private sector employment rather than public sector is generally a more healthy economy.

  • Tony,

    Regarding the mutual benefit societies of which you speak, I wholeheartedly agree. The social situation in the early part of the last century would astound people if they could see what types of social services were being provided for by the private sector. This, indeed, is the strongest historical argument for my case. A great book on this is Beito’s “From Mutual Aid to the Welfare State: Fraternal Societies and Social Services”:


    Regarding education specifically, see E.G. West’s “Education and the State.” In this book, West looks at the education system in England and makes the claim that the private sector was taking care of educating the people long before the government stepped in via public schools. Largely, people who wanted education were getting it. But as more people started wanting/getting it, the government senses the trend and comes up with the bright idea of taking over education. In reality, the government solution did not educate more people, they were already being educated, they simply started educating more poorly. The book is here:


  • Michael,
    I repectfully disagree with some of your points.
    Laws really are made by governments and not their citizens. If you don’t believe me, ask the Californians how Prop 8 turned out.
    In regards to government being temporary and revocable, the most powerful government body in this country, the Supreme Court, is neither.
    Governments have varying amonts of responsiveness to their citizens, but I don’t believe this is the point. Granted that it is the peoples’ choice as to whether social services are performed publicly or privately, the point remains that government does it inefficiently and lacks a very important incredient: love.
    At the end of things, when we stand before Christ as He seperates the goats from the sheep, and He asks what we did for the least of these, I don’t think He is going to be impressed when we tell Him that we voted for all the right social programs and pro-life causes.

  • Sometimes, I think that the lack of the joy of giving is what is ailing society.

Can the Private Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To? (Part II)

Tuesday, September 11, AD 2012

This is the second part in a three-part series.  Part I can be found here.  Part III can be found here.


Crowding out on its own can never make a case for the privatization of social services.  Even with government crowd out, the total amount of money raised for a particular cause is higher with government involvement (or equal in the case of total crowd out).  For instance, if a cause is funded entirely by the private sector, say at $100, and the government steps in with a $50 subsidy.  Supposing the crowd out rate is 60%, the private donations drop by $30 because of the $50 government “donation.”  However, the total gift to the charity is now $120 (the government’s $50 plus the private sector’s $70), which is higher than the purely private $100.

However, this doesn’t take into account the efficiency contrast between the private and public sector.  Here is where my model begins to take shape.  For starters, suppose that the government operates with a 30/70 split and the private sector operates with a 70/30 split and a modest crowd out rate of 60%.  Let’s follow that tax dollar collect by the government.  Suppose that the government collects and budgets $1 in taxes for a social cause.  The amount of money actually going to the cause, after the deduction for administrative expenses, is $0.30.  However, that tax dollar also causes a crowd out of 60%, or $0.60 in private giving.  No, in fairness, the private giving also has its administrative expenses, so the actual causes experiences only 70% of the $0.60 in decreased funding, which amounts to $0.42.  The end result is that the extra $0.30 injected by the government is more than counteracted by a drop in $0.42.  Thus, the government involvement actually causes a drop in funding for the actual cause.

One is free to play with the numbers, of course.  We were conservative in our estimates of private giving efficiencies and crowd out rate.  If we continue to hold the private efficiency rate at 70/30, it turns out that the crowd out rate can drop to around 43% before we hit the break even point.  This is a comfortably low number by all accounts in the literature.  Yet even this assumes a modest 70/30 private giving efficiency.  If we adjust this to the median, which is closer to 90/10 (10% administrative costs), we find that the crowd out rate can fall as low as 33% before we hit the break even point.  What this tells us is that for more than half the charities, there is a substantial decrease in actual available funds when the government raises taxes to subsidize the programs.  Were such a reality to be understood and made public, it would cause a fiscal scandal greater than any experience by the few immoral and manipulative bad apples in the world of private charitable organizations.

Now, we should admit that this is based on a definition of “crowd out” that can be unclear in the literature.  Many authors use the term without defining whether the crowd out percentage is a function of the taxed dollar ($1) or the final injection after administrative costs are factored out ($0.30).  We assumed the later because in the two mathematical models (Krause and Andreoni) we were able to follow actual variables, and it was the taxed dollar that resulted in the crowd out.  However, is a subsequent paper, Andreoni himself seems to be leaning towards the later definition.  If that is true, the situation changes*.  It turns out that total available post-administrative funds is increased by government involvement in all cases (and only breaks even if private giving is perfectly efficient and crowd out is 100%), but the increase is such a small percentage of the total taxes collected (between 10% and 13% using the same efficiency and crowd our assumptions), that the expenditures become difficult to defend from any reasonable moral perspective.  Such a reality, even in this case, would cause a public scandal if it were explained to the average voter.

If their are economists among us who can clarify this definition with a solid reference, I would be more than grateful to hear an answer.  I have at least ten papers from economics journals on my desk, none of which are specific enough on the definition of crowd out to decide this point.


 * In the case that crowd out is defined as a function of the money spent on the actual cause by the government rather than the taxed dollar, the mathematical exercise is a bit more complicated.Out of the dollar collected via taxation, only $0.30 of it is going to make it through the bureaucratic structures of the government.  When the $0.30 is injected into the cause, it results it a decrease of $0.18 (60% of of $0.30) of private giving due to crowd out.  Of course, this is a decrease in $0.18 of giving, not of actual money to the cause.  In fairness, even the private charity has its administrative costs.  Thus, the decrease is private funding is only 70% of the $0.18, or $0.126.  Nevertheless, the total difference made by the government $1 is the $0.30 decreased by the crowded out $0.126, which comes to $0.174.  Therefore, it is a mistake to think that he government gets even its 30% of the dollar for the social cause.  The net gain experienced by the cause is only 12.6%.  Think about this on a larger scale.  In order for the government to make a $1,000,000 difference in a cause, it must collect $5.75 million in tax money.

One is free to play with the numbers to see the impact of combining efficiency and crowd out rates.  Our experiment was based on a conservative 70% private giving efficiency and a modest 60% crowd out.  If we assume the median private giving efficiency of 90% and Andreoni’s 70% crowd out rate, the net government difference on the tax dollar falls to 11.1%.  So to raise that $1,000,000, the government would have to collect over $9 million in taxes.

Notice that the cause is still “technically” better off.  Even in the more extreme case, the cause still gets its additional $1,000,000 in funding.  In fact, this will always be the case.  While the combined rate falls as private efficiency and crowd out rise, even with a private efficiency of 100% and a crowd out of 100%, the government simply replaces every dollar in the social cause.  Yet the replacement come at quite a cost to the taxpayer.  If a private charitable organization were to operate on these dismal percentages, it would make the front page of the New York Times in the most scandalous of manners.

 Read Part III here.
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The White House and Sexualityism

Tuesday, September 11, AD 2012

While I understand the USCCB’s commitment to framing the HSS Mandate exclusively in terms of religious liberty, I have been, since the beginning, reminding people that it is in fact a contraception issue. Politically it may make sense to focus on religious liberty, but morally, the two are inseparable. Well-known law professor Helen Alvaré has a very well-written piece at the Witherspoon Institute:

It should be noted that sexualityism is no more than a theory about a claimed cause of women’s happiness—i.e., that its growth is directly proportional to women’s ability to express themselves sexually without commitment and without the possibility of children. The HHS mandate stands on this theory. In a world of easy availability of birth control and abortion, the only reason for a federal mandate for a “free” and universal supply is to try to send the sexualityism message. The White House has all but come out and said: “women of America, vote for the incumbent this presidential election year because he supports women’s equality and freedom, which he understands to include at the very least nonmarital and nonprocreative sexual expression.” Why else choose Sandra Fluke—an affluent, single, female law student, who demands a taxpayer-subsidized, 365-day supply of birth control as the price of female equality—as your spokeswoman? While every savvy media outlet understands the political theater going on here with the whole “war on women,” anti-Republicans message, still when the White House uses its powerful bully pulpit to send such a message, cultural damage is done.

Read the rest here.

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2 Responses to The White House and Sexualityism

  • There is little if any difference between the Democrats and the ancient Israelites who worshipped the goddess Ashteroth before fertility poles and made their children to walk in fire as sacrifice before the Canaanite god Molech. And God, since He does NOT change, will deal with this country in the same way that He dealt with Judah and Israel for these crimes against humanity and against Him.

  • Congress has no authentic authority to dispense with or waive the informed consent of their constituents. Tax money from all citizens pays for any edict Sebelius chooses to include in the Affordable Health Care Act at her will, after the fact. The next HHS mandate Sebelius is most likely to make with the blessing of Obama and Congress’ neglect of their constituents may well be, and it can be, that no man can say “NO” to any female who wants to have sexualityism expression with him. Sexualityism is another form of male subjugation, after emasculation and redefinition of the human male, by our culture.

Can the Private Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To?

Monday, September 10, AD 2012

This is the first part in a three-part series.  It raises an issue that I have been thinking about for over three years, and I have finally nailed down some sources and drawn the whole argument together.  I will issue the next two parts over the course of the week.


The Problem

With the pending election there has been a resurgence of discussion about privatizing certain industries, e.g. health care, education, etc.  Further, the Democratic Convention suggests that the Democratic party is the party that cares about a shared responsibility for the collective mankind, establishing a suggested radical individualism present among Republican.  More simply put, the Democrats are often portrayed as the party that cares about the poor, while the Republicans are the party that cares only about themselves.  Paul Ryan has maintained that he is fiscally conservative in part because he does care about the poor.  His prudential judgement has led him to believe that the best way to help the poor is through fiscal monetary policies.

However, when the proposal to privatize any government service arises, alongside we find a familiar, and seemingly difficult to overcome, argument.  Just as an example, let’s take education.  Were we to privatize our education system completely, would that not leave several individuals in a position of not being able to afford tuition.  There are, after all, people in tax brackets that pay less in education taxes than it costs for the government to educate their children, just as there are those who pay more in education taxes than the cost of education.  This is the point of taxes for social services: a redistribution of wealth.  It is misunderstood that those who would defend a privatized system are selfishly attached to “my money” and somehow prioritize the individual over the community.  This is a red herring, though; the discussion is not about the priority of the individual or the community, but rather about the best way to serve the community, through tax dollars or private charitable giving.  Those who cannot afford tuition would be helped in the same way that many are now helped who cannot afford other necessities: through freely offered private charitable giving.  Typically, the next objection is that this is overly optimistic about human generosity.  In other words, the amount of freely offered charity will not be able to sustain the need, and hence compulsory giving, i.e. taxes, is necessary.  My aim is to defend that in most cases a privatized system will out-give compulsory giving  via taxation and that freely offered charity enjoys philosophical and theological advantages over dollars extracted through a tax system.


The Numbers

My thesis is that private funds will be able to account for the drop in funding by eliminating the taxes that current fund the social service.  To see this, we need to discuss two economic realities.

The first is the efficiency with which the government, and by contrast the private sector, provides social services.  Robert Woodson (1989), in Breaking the Poverty Cycle: Private Sector Alternatives to the Welfare State, has calculated that, on average, 70% of the funds collected through taxes dedicated to social services goes not to the social service itself, but instead to administrative bureaucracy.  This means that for every dollar collected by the government, only 30 cents actually goes towards the service.  Michael Tanner corroborates this 70/30 split through several regional studies in The End of Welfare (1998).  In contrast to this, the same administrative/service split in the private sector is reversed.  Only one-third of privately collected monies goes towards administrative services, and two-third goes towards the actual cause.  According to Edwards (“The Cost of Public Income Redistribution, 2007), 70 percent of newer charities, as rated by Charity Navigator, spend at least 75% of their budgets on the programs and services they exist to provide.  90% spend at least 65%, and the median among all charities in the sample was 90.7%.

The reason for this is basic competition.  Private sector charities are under strong pressure to operate efficiently because donors want to know that a large percentage of their gifts go to support the appointed cause.  Programs that operate inefficiently will cease to attract donors and eventually cease to exist.  True, there are some very unethical charities out there that take advantage of donors’ money, but over time and with adequate exposure, competition solves this problem.  In contrast, government lacks the motivation experienced by private charitable organizations to operate at efficient levels.  There is an ironic turn of events in this: according to Edwards,

“Those operating at levels of inefficiency comparable to the average government agency are often prosecuted – by the government (which never applies the same standards or threat to its own agencies – for fraud.  Pressure on private charities to avoid such prosecution, and the bad publicity and loss of public trust resulting, is strong.”

The contrasting levels of efficiency between the public and private sectors means that the government has to raise over twice as much money in taxes as the private sector would have to raise in donations in order to provide the same service (assuming the private sector operates at a 70% efficiency level).  In other words, if a social service costs 21 million dollars, the government would have to extract 70 million dollars in taxes in order to cover the cost.  The private sector would have to raise only 30 million dollars.  This assumes a generous 70/30 split in the private sector.  As stated earlier, the median is closer to a 90/10 split, and in this case the private sector would only have to raise 23.3 million dollars, only a third what the government requires.

The second economic reality is what is known as “crowding out.”  The idea is that, as the government collects tax money and budgets it towards a social cause, private donors become less likely to donate their own funds.  In other words, the government support “crowds out” private donations.  Arthur Brooks in “Is There a Dark Side to Government Support for Nonprofits?” (2000) lists four reasons why crowding out occurs.  The most obvious is that a cause that already receives funding from a third source (government or otherwise) is unlikely to appear as “in need” and therefore unlikely to attract additions donations.  Second, “subsidies to non-profit firms may make them appear to private donors ‘non-mainstream’ and, hence, in need of non-market support.”  Third, private donors often want to know they have some control over the organization they choose to support.  Finally, since government support is taxed-based, it decreases the amount of disposable income that private donors can direct towards charitable causes.  (This last effect is compounded by the relative inefficiency with which government social programs operates.)

Crowd out rates are measured as percentages of a dollar that are “crowded out” for every government dollar added.  For instance, a 70% crowd out rate means that for every tax dollar the government collects for a cause, the private donations are reduced by 70 cents.  “Total crowd out” is a dollar-for-dollar exchange, so for every dollar injected by the federal government, exactly one dollar of private donations is eliminated.  Anything less is considered “partial crowd out.”

The literature that measures crowd out rates falls generally into three categories: real world data, theoretical models, and theoretical controlled experiments.  Unfortunately, crowd out rates based on real world data are across the board.  Brooks summarizes some of the studies which quote real world rates anywhere from 1.8% to 66%.

The theoretical models depend in part on the assumptions made about givers.  In one model, charity is determined exclusively by the need of a particular cause, in which case crowd out rates are total (dollar-for-dollar).  The idea is that a cause only needs a finite amount of money and people are willing to pay to see that finite amount met.  If the government steps in and meets part of the requirement, the private donors, sensing the need has been decreased, will decrease their donations dollar for dollar.  If the government decreases their support, private donations step back in and pick up the slack, again dollar-for-dollar.  The crowd out rate in such cases is 100%.  Other models suggest that people give not simply to satisfy a social need, but also for personal satisfaction, a “warm glow” effect.  James Andreoni is a leading expert in this area, and his models predict a minimum of 71.5% crowd out rate (“An Experimental Test of the Public-Goods Crowding-Out Hypothesis,” 1993).  A third model attempts to consider the effect of giving competition.  The idea is that donors are more likely to give at a particular level based on what their peers are giving.  In this case, Alan Krause (“On the Crowding-Out Effects of Tax-Financed Charitable Contributions by the Government,” 2011) predicts that crowding out may be attenuated by such competition, but the situation is highly unstable.  If even a single person has some motivation to drop their giving, others will follow suit in the face of government subsidies and crowding out rate approaches total.

The third category in the literature is controlled theoretical experiments.  Generally this falls into the mathematical area of Game Theory.  Andreoni is again an expert in this field, and his experiments have corroborated his theoretical rates, in one case 71.5% and in another up to 84%.  Another experiment (“An Experimental test of the crowding out hypothesis,” C. Eckel, et. al., 2003) attempted to separate groups into those who knew that third party funds were coming from tax dollars (“no fiscal illusion”) and those who were unaware of the source of the new funds (“fiscal illusion”).  In the case of fiscal illusion, the authors found no evidence of crowding out, but in the case where donors were aware that tax dollars were subsidizing the cause, crowding was almost total.

In the face of these three categories of results, we are forced to ask: which ones are “better”.  In other words, if were are going after actual crowd out rates, would it not make sense to trust those that are data driven?  No, says Andreoni.  The problem with the data-driven results is that they are incapable of separating out a vast range of influences.  In other words, it is nearly impossible to have a “control” in the real economic world.  For instance, “it is impossible to know whether the incomplete crowding-out found [in the literature] is the result of certain institutional features not captured by the model, or whether it is due to individual preferences that are different than those assumed in public-goods models.”  The purpose of the laboratory experiments is to provide such a control.  Keep in mind that the laboratory experiments are not entirely mathematical – they involve real people making real decisions.  It is also telling that the lab experiments are consistent with the theoretical models developed elsewhere in the literature.

All told, the present author is comfortable in making the assumption that average crowd out rates are at least at the 60% level, that is, for every dollar injected by the government into a social cause, 60 cents is taken out in private donations.  Given the theoretical models and the laboratory experiments, which typically come in around 70%, I feel that this is a generous assumption for my purposes.

Part II can be found here.
Part III can be found here.
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14 Responses to Can the Private Sector Support What the Public Sector Claims To?

  • Excellent post, Jake. One of the best I’ve read in a long time. I am somewhat surprised to find myself in agreement, though not with high confidence. One factor to take into account is the chilling effect that free rider concerns are sure to have on those who consider responsibility for the poor to be a societal one rather than an individual one. These folks, mostly liberals as revealed in Brooks’ research, will resent that some contribute to this social responsibility but not all, and therefore will rationalize a comfort in not giving. In other words the funds paid by liberals as taxes for the needy, once eliminated, will largely stay with those liberals. That said, I don’t think that fact necessarily defeats your hypothesis.

  • Jake,
    You’ll need to factor in as you go: less free will giving by most families were medicaid to be gradually phased out. Medicaid covers 60% of elderly in nursing homes. I saw a media spot which showed a lady who went though all her $300,000 in assets in five years in a nursing home after which Medicaid kicked in to pay $50,000 a year for her since she had gone from middleclass to poverty via the nursing home experience and thus qualified for Medicaid despite working and saving her whole life. Were children of the elderly to be responsible for $50,000 to $70,000 a year for a disabled parent, such children then would not be donating to charities throughout their lifetimes to the extent that they would either be saving much more for the future personally or they would be
    funding long term health insurance for their parents and themselves. Celibates in the world laity would also be obliged for their future to save much more since they have no children to pay for their nursing home…should they need one.
    Catholic old age homes are a private charity of sorts but 60% of their income comes from medicaid. Medicaid’s budget in 2010 was $401 billion dollars.
    The Vatican is thought to have one billion in investments. Were the Vatican to give it all to the things Medicaid covers, it would be a pittance. Catholics at the parish level gave $60 million to
    Haiti after the quake. That is minuscule compared to the Medicaid budget.
    Rupert Murdoch’s billionaire group are pledged to charity giving which again is a fraction of the Medicaid budget which covers by the way 37% of births in US hospitals…in some cases, unjustly so…but the Bishops will be noticing than as Medicaid gets withdrawn from the lower economic classes, abortion will be more likely because it’s cheaper than what Medicaid now pays.
    Withdrawal of the safety net means the middleclass will have to save much more for their own old age or for their parents and that will reduce the urge to give charity.
    Proceed with your paradigm but include the attendant new money pressures on anyone who is not a millionaire because old age can quickly make savings in the hundreds of thousands vanish if illness attends old age and one needs a skilled nursing home for ongoing nursing care. I suspect a minority need it but since no one knows their future, all will have to financially prepare for it.

  • Correction…not Rupert Murdoch’s but rather Warren Buffet’s charity group.

  • “You’ll need to factor in as you go: less free will giving by most families were medicaid to be gradually phased out”

    That is a significant concern for many older people. Under federal law (the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005), once a long term care resident applies for Medicaid, all their financial transactions for the previous 5 years are subject to scrutiny. Any money given to another person or entity during this “look back” period without receiving something of equal value in return is deemed a “transfer of assets”. Asset transfers that are not exempt under one’s state law MAY incur a penalty period — meaning, you are deemed ineligible for Medicaid for a period equal to the amount of time you could have paid for your own care with the transferred assets. If you’re already broke and in the nursing home when you apply for Medicaid and you get hit with a penalty, this means you either have to move out temporarily, or the nursing home has to go unpaid for a period of time, or you have to go through the process of getting a hardship waiver (meaning more bureaucratic hoops and delay).

    Now, most states do have provisions for exempting charitable gifts and routine gifts to family and friends for Christmas or other special occasions. However, if one’s financial records are not in order, or your state’s law doesn’t have a specific exemption for charitable/family gifts, or the caseworker processing your application is extremely strict, a person COULD end up being penalized for having made large charitable or family gifts during the look back period.

    The DRA rules are based on an assumption that seniors should be saving as much money as they can to pay for their own long term care and not leaving it on the taxpayers. I understand that, and wealthy people shouldn’t be able to dump six- or seven-figure assets on their heirs, plead poverty and get on Medicaid. At the same time, seniors who want to be generous to their community, church, or family shouldn’t have to live in fear of being left out in the cold if they get sick and end up in a nursing home. Consultation with a knowledgeable elder law attorney is essential.

  • “The DRA rules are based on an assumption that seniors should be saving as much money as they can to pay for their own long term care and not leaving it on the taxpayers.”

    That is a truly fantasy assumption. Most people heading to the nursing home have virtually nothing to their name other than social security and their house. People who do have the ability to pay their nursing home bills frequently engage in strenuous efforts to transfer their property prior to entering the nursing home in order to have the taxpayer pick up the tab. (There are ways to legally accomplish this if done long enough prior to entering the nursing home.) If one wishes to retain an optimistic view of human nature, this is not an area of law to have much exposure to. Unfortunately the vast majority of people save little for a rainy day, especially for their old age, and when it does rain the first reaction is to look to the taxpayer to pick up the tab.

  • Elaine,
    Just so your readers know….Medicaid is a Federal-State partnership for which the Ryan budget
    would cut the Federal part by $800 billion over ten years starting immediately if he were able to get it passed. The states then would have more say but would have to come up with more money or reduce coverage but within court ordered mandates that forbid certain cuts. On our property tax statement and perhaps on yours, it will show how much your property taxes were reduced by state funding of same. That funding would decrease as states pick up the medicaid funding cut from the Fed. That means…property taxes would “levitate” if I might give it a mystical term….another pressure on non millionaires that would militate against charity donations…along with proposed elimination of the deduction for mortgage interest. Would federal tax decreases cover the new state exactions? We can only pray to St. Matthew…the patron saint of tax collectors.

  • As I proceed through this reflection, it is critical to note that I am not presenting a recipe for how to transition from a State where public funds are used to fund social causes, be they wealth redistribution programs or health care programs, to a State where such causes are funded through private charitable giving. Such a transition is way beyond my pay grade, to quote our illustrious leader. I am presenting evidence that merely favors the existence of charity State over a welfare State. Most of the arguments above, particularly those about Medicaid, have, I think, more to do with the transition than the possible existence. In that sense, they are quite valid. What would various members of society do if they were suddenly put in the position of having to fund large expenses that were previously funded by tax redistribution? This is an important question, but not the one I seek to answer in this series of posts.

    The question I seek to answer is whether or not a charity State is possible. In that light, the objections about the dissolution of Medecaid are not relevant. By this I mean no disrespect to the commentators – merely to clarify the question I am addressing. The argument is that medical expense, like other living expenses, can in fact be funded through purely private means. (Again, transition issues aside.) On the surface, there is nothing special about health care funding compared with other social industries … except …

    The one thing that makes health care funding a bit different is the way the government to some degree controls the prices. It seems, then, that the crowd out/efficiency arguments won’t work. In fact, I seems to recall reading some studies that suggest that government health care is actually more efficient. Yet even this is an illusion. The government does not control how much medical expenses cost, only how much people charge for them. In this way, the government is guilty of currency manipulation (subtly). In the end, this effects the economy and will eventually expose the inefficiency for what it is. Remember, every time the government spends money it is a tax, whether that tax dollar is collected directly or not.

  • People who do have the ability to pay their nursing home bills frequently engage in strenuous efforts to transfer their property prior to entering the nursing home in order to have the taxpayer pick up the tab. (There are ways to legally accomplish this if done long enough prior to entering the nursing home.) If one wishes to retain an optimistic view of human nature, this is not an area of law to have much exposure to. Unfortunately the vast majority of people save little for a rainy day, especially for their old age, and when it does rain the first reaction is to look to the taxpayer to pick up the tab.

    At the rates prevailing in my home town, a pre-mortem stay in a nursing home of mean duration (about 11 months) will set you back about $95,000. Having that amount in liquid assets lying about likely is fairly atypical. Here in New York, liquidating a first residence is not necessary as long as the spouse resides therein.

    They would actually have to anticipate their entry into a nursing home by a minimum of five years in New York and have a set of trusted relations with which to park assets. One, the other, or both are commonly absent. Also, nursing homes commonly want proof from a private-pay patient that they have the means to pay one year’s worth of charges. Most admitted to nursing homes do no last that long. Social Security, pensions, and income from testamentary trusts must be applied unless there is a surviving spouse. Also, comprehensively dumping your assets on proximate relations precludes the use of institutions short of nursing homes, such as supervised apartment buildings and assisted living centers unless you have ample retirement income.

    People do not commonly save for disasters, and the necessity of making use of long term care is in fact a disaster. They make use of insurance. The trouble is, the purchase of long term care insurance has not been a cultural habit, it is expensive, and a surprisingly large share of the population are deemed uninsurable risks under current underwriting standards. There is a reason that two-thirds of the charges for long-term care in this country are met by public expenditure.

  • “At the rates prevailing in my home town, a pre-mortem stay in a nursing home of mean duration (about 11 months) will set you back about $95,000. ”

    About half that in my part of Central Illinois.

    “They would actually have to anticipate their entry into a nursing home by a minimum of five years in New York and have a set of trusted relations with which to park assets. One, the other, or both are commonly absent.”

    In my county Art, homes or farm land is normally what is protected, and the transfers usually occur eight to six years prior to the entry into the nursing home, assuming they live long enough to be a nursing home patient.

    “Also, nursing homes commonly want proof from a private-pay patient that they have the means to pay one year’s worth of charges.”

    No such requirement exists with nursing homes in my locale.

    “Also, comprehensively dumping your assets on proximate relations precludes the use of institutions short of nursing homes, such as supervised apartment buildings and assisted living centers unless you have ample retirement income.”

    That assumes the relatives will not use the transferred assets for the benfit of the individual who transferred the asset. I find that is normally not the case here where there is usually a parent child relationship. A bigger problem is an asset becoming involved in a child’s divorce or bankruptcy.

    “People do not commonly save for disasters,”

    Many people do not save for anything at all. In regard to nursing home care you have the same problem as you do in regard to wills and powers of attorney. Thinking about it causes people to consider their own mortality, and many people simply do not wish to do so and so avoid even the simplest of planning until an emergency arises, such as a stroke or a heart attack.

  • By the way, by ‘rates prevailing’, I mean Medicaid re-imbursement rates. For private pay, add about 25%.

    Here in New York, if you have transferred assets at any time in the previous 60 months, you had best not apply for Medicaid. The period of time during which the state will refuse to re-imburse the nursing home is calculated on the basis of the quantum of assets transferred in the previous 60 months. The people with whom you parked the assets will have to liquidate them until the clock is up. In some states (New York is not one), children of nursing home residents have legal obligations and can be the subject to lawsuits by the state or nursing home operators. The way the rules are structured, it requires a goldilocks set of conditions for the wealthy to avoid paying six figure sums of money toward their care.

    About families, I can tell you a couple of stories, one about a good family and one about a hopelessly messy one.

    I should mention that the case of successful and lawful asset dumping of which I am personally familiar involved a very ordinary couple who transferred ownership of their house to their only child. Their daughter was employed as a secretary in my office. It is not just the wealthy who do this.

  • When I say ‘people do not commonly save for disasters’, I am not referring to their prudence but to the means they can reasonably employ to prepare for certain contingencies. Very few people can save to pay for cancer treatments, which is why alternate means such as risk pooling (insurance) are utile. The thing is, a private market for long term care insurance can provide workable solutions for many individual households, but not for the society as a whole.

  • “the case of successful and lawful asset dumping of which I am personally familiar involved a very ordinary couple who transferred ownership of their house to their only child.”

    The federal DRA specifically permits this kind of transfer if the child lived in the home giving care to one or both parents that can demonstrably be shown to have prevented or delayed the parent(s) entry into a nursing home for at least 2 years. I don’t know whether the woman you refer to did this, but if she did, I wouldn’t call it “asset dumping”; I would call it fair recompense for doing everything she could to keep her parents from becoming public charges as long as possible.

  • Maybe to get back on topic, we need to consider a broader question than just Medicaid planning for seniors. The question is: if the public sector stopped providing assistance to persons in need and left it to the private sector, would charitable giving increase, or would it decrease because most people of modest or lesser means would have to be more preoccupied with saving money to take care of themselves?

  • Elaine,

    I am happy to see this get back on topic. This was the very question I seek to ask, and I would direct folks to not only read this, but the follow up piece as well. The evidence is actually fairly clear. When you piece together crowd-out rates and efficiency ratings, most causes can be taken care of by private charitable giving. We can discuss until we’re blue in the face whether or not we *think* this may or may not happen, but the actual research in the field suggests strongly that it will. *Why* is another question altogether. And I made the point in a previous comment that the transition would not be an easy thing. But on the theoretical level, the case for private giving is quite clear. Keep in mind, when we talk about these things, one cannot look at an individual case and generalize. It is clear that average Joe, who will now potentially be responsible for this or that cause, may not have the funds to do it. On the other hand, there will be those that experience a lot more dollars in pocket due to lower taxes, and the numbers suggest that they will give more generously because of this. History is full of several examples. I would point more modernly to the Christo Rey schools as an example for where education can be provided for out of private giving. The social organizations of the early 1900’s (Knights of Columbus being one of them) where doing a fine job of providing all sorts of insurance and aide to those financially in need.

    Again, it may be difficult to imagine that this or that cause could be funded if government gets out of the picture, but this is exactly the issue I am addressing in this and the following post. This first post only raises the question and defines some terms. The second one actually makes the mathematical argument.

Fare Forward

Sunday, August 5, AD 2012

There is an outstanding new publication hitting the press by the name of Fare Forward: A Christian Review of Ideas.  The Editor-in-Chief is named Peter Blair.  While at Dartmouth, Blair ran the campus publication Apologia.  Now that he is a graduate, this is his attempt at furthering the mission of Apologia and taking it national in Fare Forward.  From the website, the publication describes itself:

Fare Forward is a quarterly Christian review of ideas and cultural commentary for young adults launched in the summer of 2012. As undergraduates, the editors of the journal all worked on The Dartmouth Apologia, a journal of Christian thought at Dartmouth College. The success of the Apologia and like-minded Christian journals on college campuses across the country, as well as the sociological research on our generation, inspired the editors to create this journal. Our writers and readers are drawn from the ranks of what sociologists have begun to call “emerging adults”: young people who have graduated from college and begun to enter the work force but who are still facing a period of transition and uncertainty. We aim to provide emerging adults with a space to engage with a thoughtful Christian worldview that provides a framework for integrating faith, reason, service and vocation, and to put this worldview in dialogue with the intellectual and cultural trends influencing our national discussions.

The name ‘Fare Forward’ is taken from “The Dry Salvages”, the third quartet of T.S. Eliot’s masterpiece, Four Quartets. “The Dry Salvages” is a reflection on time, eternity, and humanity’s place in between. We chose our name to reflect this awareness of the transhistorical, incarnational nature of human experience and to affirm our commitment to acknowledging both the richness of Christian tradition and our faith’s vital creativity.

Give Fare Forward a solid look, and consider a subscription during this inaugural year.  While I am committed (for obvious reasons) to electronic media, I am also a fan of keeping printed publications as an integral part of our intellectual culture.

The website can be found here  Subscriptions can be order here.

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Anna Karenina

Sunday, July 8, AD 2012

We all have books that imprint a lasting memory on us, not simply for the entertainment value, but rather for the way in which they communicate the truth of the human person.  I just spent the better part of two hours and three cups of coffee with a good friend who described manner of influence that Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisted had upon him.  It seems to me that the profundity of such texts is carried by their characters rather than their plot lines.  True, the development of the characters is always serviced by the plot; but equally true is the direction of such service.  In fact, this is more than likely the primary means by which many modern novels go astray: the characters are at the service of the plot rather than the other way around.  Much of modern writing reads like a movie script rather than a work of literature.

For me, Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina is an exemplar in character development and as such presents an unparalleled disclosure of the human condition and the effects of both sin and virtue in the life of man.  I read the book five years ago, and I can still quote the opening line: “All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”  There are two ways to read this.  The first is that “happy” is uniform, and in some sense boring, whereas sin is interesting, unique even.  Disfunction is worth writing about, because we, as readers, find it intriguing.  I don’t think this is Tolstoy’s final word on these words, at least in terms of the novel seen as a whole, but I do think he intends the reader to understand something along these lines at the start of the novel.

The story follows four individuals arranged as couple.  The first, for whom the novel is named, is Anna.  When she comes on the scene, she is nothing short of captivating: beautiful and mysterious in every way.  Anna is married, albeit unhappily.  As the story progresses, she falls into an illicit affair with the young Count Vronsky, who pursues her with both intensity and persistence.  The third is a young woman named Kitty.  At the start of the novel, Kitty is simple, even a bit superficial.  In short, I found her utterly uninteresting.  By the end of the story, Kitty is married to a man named Levin.  While their path towards this marriage was complicated, and each did their fair share of soul searching, they are to be the couple who stands apart in virtue from that of Anna and Vronsky, whose sin takes center stage throughout much of the book.

The curious thing is not the evolution of Kitty and Levin, nor the devolution of Anna and Vronsky.  Rather, the curious thing is the interest in which the reader has for each couple.  While Anna begins the story as mysterious and captivating, by the end of her plot line, her path of self-destruction comes to fulfillment, and at her final moment in which she throws herself in front of a train, she has lost all identity due to her sin.  The effect of sin and vice on the human person is reminiscent of Tolkien’s Gollum, for whom the ring (symbolizing evil) has replaced his own sense of self, even to the point where he speaks of himself in the plural.  Something of this sort is present in the New Testament encounters with demons, who also speak in the plural: “We are legion.”  In contrast, Kitty and Levin become much more complex and intriguing by the end.  Their fulfillment in virtue makes them interesting.  The message is clear: vice leads to self-destruction and lack of identity, and virtue leads to self fulfillment.

As I reflected back on the book, I felt, as a reader, towards each character exactly how one should feel in light of Tolstoy’s theme.  At the outset, I was captivated by the Anna and Vronksy plot and bored by that of Kitty and Levin.  I almost found myself (especially in light of the book’s overall length) nearly skimming past the chapters devoted to Kitty.  She was superficial and boring, and I had little patience for her.  Yet by the end, the tables had turned.  I was so tired of the sinful affair and the pathetic nothing of which Anna had become, that I was almost relieved when she finalized her own destruction.  For right or wrong, “It is about time,” was my reaction.  I was much more interested in seeing what would become of Kitty and Levin.

Towards the end of the book, I prematurely felt that I “got it.”  I thought I understood what Tolstoy was trying to do.  Yet, in spite of my Catholic upbringing, I failed to predict the true climax of the book.  It ins’t simply that virtue leads to happiness.  The perfection of the human person is not found only in natural virtue.

Levin, devoted fully to Kitty, senses the same, that something missing.

“When Levin thought about what he was and what he lived for, he found no answer and fell into despair, but when he stopped asking himself about it, he seemed to know what he was and what he lived for, because he acted and lived firmly and definitely; recently he had even lived much more firmly and definitely than before…  He felt something new in his soul and delightedly probed this new thing, not yet knowing what it was.  ‘To live not for one’s own needs but for God.’  For what God?  For God.  And could anything more meaningless be said than what he said?”

Up until this point, Levin is an atheist; he struggles with Kitty’s religion.  Yet he searches, looking for proof, for that “miracle” that will convince the heart.

“‘I and millions of people who lived ages ago and are living now, muzhiks, the poor in spirit, and the wise men who have thought and written about it, saying the same thing in their vague language – we’re all agreed on this one thing: what we should live for and what is good.’”

He is reasoning that man has an inherent sense of both purpose and morality, and the the two are connected.  Why should a sense of “the good” pervade all of human history?  This is the miracle for which he has searched.

 “‘I looked for miracles, I was sorry that I’d never seen a miracle that would convince me.  And here it is, the only possible miracle, ever existing, surrounding my on all sides, and I never noticed it!  Can this be faith?’ he wondered, afraid to believe his happiness.  ‘My God, thank you!’ he said, choking back the rising sobs and with both hands wiping away the tears that filled his eyes.”

Even in his natural state of happiness, the result of virtuous decisions, Levin was not complete.  The human condition finds its perfection in conversion, and it is thus with which the novel ends.  (I have picked and assembled pieces of Levin’s vast monologue –  will leave it to the readers to go through the rest of it.  It is a brilliant philosophical argument in its own right.)

The novel is a perfect exhibition of the three states in which the human can find himself: vice, natural virtue, and supernatural perfection.  Granted, we are never, this side of heaven, purely in one state, but the three states are real nonetheless.  The message of Tolstoy couldn’t be more obsious: vice destroys, virtue perfects, but there is something else even beyond natural perfection, and that can only be brought about by self-abandonment, conversion, and grace.  That being said, the message of grace is utterly Orthodox/Catholic: grace perfects nature – it does not destroy it.

When we understand this, we return full circle with a renewed understanding to the opening words: “All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”  It is not that sin is more interesting than virtue, for by the end of the book the reader is much more drawn into the plot of Kitty and Levin and has decidedly left the sinful affair in its own demise.  However, it remains true that there is only one path to happiness, authentic happiness that is: conversion.  Yet sin is as varied as the sinner.  Variety, however, does not make for interest anymore than simplicity makes for boredom.  God, after all, is perfectly simple, as is he one.

This brings me to the question of why, after five years, I found myself motivated to write about Anna Karenina.  The other day, when perusing upcoming films, I came across a trailer for a new adaption of Tolstoy’s novel, staring Keira Knightley as Anna.  Initially I was excited, but after watching the trailer, something seemed lacking.

First, the entire trailer focusses on the Anna and Vronsky affair.  There seems to be little mention of Kitty and Levin, though they are among the cast list and appear very briefly in the trailer.  Granted, the film, as well as the book, it titled after this character, so the focus on Anna is at the very least understandable.  It is, in fact, something about which I have often wondered.  With the destruction of Anna some fifty pages from the end, the climax of both the book and Tolstoy’s message is found not in her, but rather in Levin and Kitty, who share quite a bit in word count with the Anna/Vronksy sections.  Yet titling the book something other than Anna Karenina seems to detract from the story itself.  It is almost as it Tolstoy wanted to strike up an interest in Anna even before the first page.

What is more distressing about the trailer is that the affair itself is romanticized, something that is the result of a “true love” but finds its difficulties in the unfortunate situation in which the heroine (though in the book that she is not) finds herself.  Think even of the words Anna speaks at the start of the trailer: “I was eighteen when I got married, but it was not love.”  Love, being something about which  one “cannot ask why?” is a passive and mysterious emotion rather than an act about which one has authentic freedom.  The problem is that this is utterly inconsistent with the book itself.  The affair, while initially intriguing, becomes tiresome and shallow.  It is wrong, and the reader knows it is wrong, and the destructive path to which it leads is not only inevitable, but also just.  I have a sneaky suspicion, in a day and age that readily dismisses the permanence of marriage, the film will present Anna and Vronksy with more sympathy than they deserve, missing the first point of the novel.  Her husband will be an antagonist, as will her family in trying to keep her tragically locked in an unhappy marriage.  On this note, the main antagonist will be the Church (in this case the Russian Orthodox Church), which seeks to do the same through her antiquated rules and prudish definitions of marraige.  In this regard, the film will directly depart from Tolstoy.  Consider the following monologue from the conversion of Levin:

 “‘Yes, what I know, I do not know by reason, it is given to me, it is revealed to me, and I know it by my heart, by faith in that main thing that the Church confesses.  The Church?  The Church! … But can I believe in everything the Church confesses?’  He began purposely to recall all the teachings of the Church that had always seemed to him the most strange and full of temptation … And it now seemed to him that there was not a single belief of the Church that violated the main thing – faith in God, in the good as the sole purpose of man.  In place of the Church’s beliefs there could be put the belief in serving the good instead of one’s needs.”

I doubt they will change the end of Anna – it is far to famous a scene to alter or delete.  Yet the tragic end will be more of a horrific shock than a predictable result of her sinful actions.  The tragedy will be that Anna was not allowed to love freely the one whom she so deeply desired rather than the natural self-destruction that results from vice.

I will be completely surprised if the film brings out the second, and more important lesson of Tolstoy, that natural virtue finds it perfection in conversion.  The religious themes will be stripped from the story – Hollywood has little patience for Christianity.  The last fifty pages of Anna Karenina will be seen much as the Scourging of the Shire was seen by the filmmakers of Lord of the Rings: an unnecessary appendix.  And like Lord of the Rings, in choosing to eliminate the ending, the filmmakers of Anna Karenina will have completely misunderstood a major theme woven into the fabric of the story.

Perhaps it is premature for me to render such criticism.  I certainly hope I am wrong – the lessons in Anna Karenina are indispensable for a culture that has all but abandoned the notion of vice and virtue, so I will be among the first to rejoice if the film recognizes and communicates this.  Thus, in fairness, I will withhold final judgement until the film comes out, yet the tenor of trailer leaves me in doubt.

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19 Responses to Anna Karenina

  • Whenever I hear Anna Karenina mentioned, this exchange from NewsRadio comes to mind:

    Lisa Miller: Why don’t you read a book?
    Dave Nelson: Like what?
    Lisa Miller: Like Anna Karenina.
    Dave Nelson: Oh, no. I lost a whole semester of Cheers reading Anna Karenina. I’m not making that mistake again.
    Lisa Miller: I’m reading it for the third time.
    Dave Nelson: You read the same thing over and over, and I’m the one with the brain made of mush?

    It probably shouldn’t be hard to guess which character I have more in common with….

  • Whenever I am reading a Russian novel, I have to try not to think of Love and Death:

  • The only Tolstoy I have read to date is the long story/novella “The Death of Ivan Ilyich,” which was part of a college level literature class. I would recommend reading it during Lent, since it deals with mortality, repentance and the emptiness of life without God:


  • I think you’re right about Hollywood going to strip religious themes from the movie. Think about the ending of Brideshead Revisited in the recent remake with Emma Thompson…there was nothing about the Real Presence in the chapel, just a “candle.”

  • Thanks, Jake. I’ve often thought about the irony of the faith, whether the words of Jesus or God’s way with the world as things work themselves out in time. The lives of Tolstoy’s characters seem ironic in that sense. What begins on a rather boring note turns out to be rather comic in its ending, and what began happily ended in tragedy. And I consider how much value we must place on outcomes. Life is often tragic but ends on a comic note for the Christian.

  • Christianity, I think, led to the character development we’ve come to expect from good writing. That someone would be seen deeply in personal terms as acquiring unique character, that their struggles and responses count and that they achieve greater depth through time as they surmount obstacles and share themselves with others, this is all what we’ve come to expect from a Christian anthropology. Biography and confessionalism are products, I suppose, of Christianity.

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  • Sometimes it’s the subtle changes that destroy an adaptation. The recent film adaptation of Brideshead removed one of the most essential moments of the final part of the novel, thus completely missing the entire point of Waugh’s masterpiece. No doubt your right about Anna Karenina (an excellent novel, and I second your overall view of the book). It’s hard to do a work like that justice in a two-hour movie, anyway.

  • Paul, it’s funny your mention (as did someone else) the recent adaption of Brideshead. It was the example discussed over the three cups of coffee previously mentioned (had with Darwin, I might add). Further, I thought of mentioning your point of trying to squeeze an entire novel into three hours (probably the reason why many like the 10 hour BBC version of Brideshead much better … with more time come at least the potential of greater fidelity to the text.) Thanks for bringing it up!

  • good point Sal– Christianity celebrates the depth of each person, individually willed and sustained by God Almighty… and that has mightily shaped our literature
    I think the Russian heart touches all of us because it is so Christian in that way.
    I tried “War and Peace” when a sophomore in high school and was daunted by the names/nicknames and story jumps- so I quit. I first read Chekhov in a little book called “Dissonant Voices in Soviet Literature” — and have been fascinated ever since. I read “Anna Karenina” way back then too; finished it feeling like an empty sack.
    The greatness of the Russian soul is of concern to our Blessed Mother as she asked us to pray for the conversion of Russia. With V Putin in charge over there we’d better keep praying.
    The scourging of the shire–only briefly alluded to, but not totally left out.

  • Tolstoy is not an easy read. After slogging through hundreds of pages, the best part was when Anna threw herself on the railroad tracks. The book should have ended there but then Tolstoy couldn’t resist writing several more anticlimactic pages.

  • Don, that was Woody’s funniest movie indeed. Loved the scenes with “Napoleon.” The best line: “There are some things worst than death. Like spending an evening with an insurance man.”

  • Bridesmaid TV adaptation was godawful. A guy pukes all over you and you become his best friend. Right.

  • I read a lot of the great Russians, but I ran out of steam halfway through War and Peace. I still hope to read it and maybe Anna Karenina one day, but Tolstoy isn’t my favorite. He writes with an agenda. I like Dostoevsky better. I prefer Dostoevsky writing about people to Tolstoy instructing us about human nature.

  • I can say one thing with absolute certainty–if Keira Knightly is in it, Anna will be portrayed as a spunky proto-feminist. That is how she plays every role. It doesn’t matter that she is a tiny waif, she becomes a butt-kicking ninja in every film. Count on it. They will probably write in a scene in which she single-handedly stops the Cossacks from carrying out a pogrom.

  • I have to agree with the poster that said that the Lev/Kitty story will probably be cut in the interest of time. The novel would be much better as a PBS mini-series rather than a 2+ hour movie. Certainly, the example of the PBS adaption/recent movie of Brideshead serves as an example of complex novel not surviving a Hollywood blue pencil.

    You’ve intrepeted Lev’s conversion as a “message of grace” in the Othodox/Catholic manner. I can’t disagree more. There is nothing in Lev’s conversion story or his approach to God that is as complex or as ritualistic as the Orthodox or Catholic bureaucracies. As you state above–Lev’s God is discovered as “perfectly simple.” (The “sancity” of simplicity is another theme in the book. The simplicity of Lev’s estate is considered more moral than the city. The peasants are drawn in a much more sympathetic light than the nobility. The beauty of the honest toil of the harvest is contrasted with Voronsky’s idyl wealth and meaningless luxury.)

    You’ve also not mentioned Lev’s inner dialog during the wedding “it must be this way” or the portrait of the self-righteous, theatrical, showy religiousity of Countess Lydia Ivanovna. Her character has to be viewed as Tolstoy’s condemnation of complex religion.

    You may claim that Tolstoy is writing about virtue and vice, but you can’t claim this is a message about any religion in particular and certainly not an ode to organized religion. Remember–Tolstoy rejected the authority of the structure of the Orthodox church and the church, in turn, excommunicated Tolstoy.

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  • Pinky, I’ll argue with you; all authors have some sort of agenda in mind…but I totally get that you dislike Tolstoy’s method of going about it.

  • I, too, saw the trailer as my 21 year old daughter called me over to watch it on her notebook. I, too, felt something gnawing in the pit of my stomach— are they really going to glorify the affair? Knock the Church? Blame the parents? It appears that way in the trailer. I felt sad as I watched a portrayal of Anna’s unsympathetic husband and began to cringe at the fast-paced tearing down of what is good and glorifying what is sin. I am hoping against all hope, it is just a teaser trailer & Tolstoy comes out ahead on this.

A Not-So-Fictitious Dialog about the First Gay President

Tuesday, May 15, AD 2012

I found myself in a Facebook conversation recently with a guy I don’t even know; a “friend” or a “friend: if you will. It got to the point where I invested enough time that I thought, hey, this could be a post.

I should point out that I have altered the conversation in two significant ways. First, I have eliminated all references to anything personally identifiable, which in some cases caused me to reword some sentences significantly – the content, however, remains unchanged. Second, I have actually combine the responses of several people under the general pseudonym of “Respondent.”


Respondent [Original Post]: I think that it’s great to hear President Obama speak up for the rights of all people to get married. This has been quite an important week, politically speaking!

Jake: Just as I am typing this, I fear that I may be deleted and/or misunderstood. I will try very hard to proceed charitably in the same spirit of dialog for which President Obama has so often called.

My problem with this President and events like the recent news conference is that he seems to not fully understand his own position(s). Rather, I should say, if he understands them, then he doesn’t full communicate them.

For instance, he has on multiple occasions said that marriage should not be a federal issue (in his rejection of the Defense of Marriage Act) – that it is, under the Constitution, marriage should be an issue left to the States. Yet in the same breath, he, as a representative of the federal government, makes a statement on proposing the legality of same-sex marriage. It seems to me, and I am happy to be corrected on this, that the President wants to make things federal issues when it fits with his political agenda (health care, for instance, or the national legalization of same-sex marriages), but then play the state’s rights card when it doesn’t (like the enforcement of the federal Defense of Marriage Act). The Democrats are not alone in this – don’t get me wrong – the Republicans do there fair share of selectivity/inconsistency.

The inconsistency of this President continues in his deliberate promotion of himself as a Christian. Now, I am not here to judge who is and isn’t a Christian – thankfully that is left to the infinite mercy and justice of God. However, we are called, as Christians, to point out where and when those who claim the name of Christ stray from His Gospel. We can debate, hopefully with great tact and respect, whether or not homosexuality is sinful, and certainly there are many world religions with differing views on this issue … but it is intellectually dishonest to claim that Christianity does not condemn the behavior. Both Old and New Testament, as well as the oldest writings of Church Fathers are crystal clear on this. Again, though, let me clarify my position lest I be misunderstood. My beef with the President is not solely with his new-found evolution on same-sex marriage, nor is it solely with his self-identification as a Christian. My problem is that he maintains both simultaneously. An honest reading of the Bible, the foundational text for Christianity, simply doesn’t allow for this. I would respectfully ask the President to chose one or the other, and then let the intellectual debate begin. As long as he tries to hold both in tandem, no honest discussion can occur.

My third issue, to add more to the pending firestorm against me, is a very practical concern with the federal government getting involved with marriage. My practical concern is related to the recent HHS debacle. If the Federal government can start mandating health insurance coverage, then the door is wide open for the violation of religious freedom, as evidenced by the recent attempt to force religious employers to purchase medical options that violate their religious conscience. In a similar way, then, if the federal government gets invalid with allowing (nationally) same-sex marriage, then the next step will become to tell specific faiths that they cannot discriminate in their marriage ceremonies and practices. This is the kind of thing that happens when the Federal government starts overstepping its constitutional bounds and wades into issue that are to be left to the States.

Finally, I would point out that for those who are opposed to the President’s position, this is not, and never has been, and issue of equality. At least it is not any more an issue of equality than is the reality that a male cannot give birth. Rather, it is a matter of the objective nature of a particular reality. A man cannot give birth, not because he is in some way less human than a woman, but because it is not in the nature of what it is to be male. The position of those who defend marriage between one man and one woman is much more along those lines than it is along the lines of civil rights, equality, and the like. Marriage has a particular nature to it, and it is the position of those who disagree with the President that it is against the nature of marriage to have it contracted between two men or two women. In other words, it is not that people believe two men (or two women) SHOULD NOT get married; the position is that two men (or two women) CANNOT be married. They can say the words, exchange the rings, but no valid marriage is confected. Obviously there are those that disagree, but the debate needs to happen on this level, the objective nature of marriage and sexuality, rather than on the level of ambiguous and undefined “equality.” Authentic equality, much like authentic freedom, is built upon objective nature.

I think that is quite enough for now. I hope, as I tried to do, that it was charitable. Alas, the difficulty with the typed word is that it never fully communicates nuance, emotion, and a whole host of other things.

Respondent: Hi, Jake, I’ll simply say that the President hasn’t tried to get Congress to introduce legislation about marriage (plenty of other things on his plate at present, I suppose?). He was just expressing his opinion after Biden expressed his own opinion. I think it is good that they have been cautiously thinking about their stance on marriage and listening to the public about it. Many surveys I’ve seen show that the majority of young people in our country support the right of gays and lesbians to marry, perhaps because we grew up with these issues as a daily topic of conversation, I don’t know. Anyway, everyone is entitled to their opinions, and I’m glad that Obama and Biden continue to discuss and to listen before trying to get Congress to introduce legislation about it. Even Cheney endorsed the rights of gays and lesbians to marry (not just civil unions), and it’s probably because Cheney has experienced what his daughter lives with in her walk through life. Even a very conservative guy like Cheney can understand it because the Cheney family has lived through the experience of what a lesbian faces on her path in life. Until we live through an experience, it is hard to really understand it.

I salute the President and Vice President on this. As far as Christianity being crystal clear on homosexuality, the Old and New Testament are crystal clear on many things that even the most conservative of Christians choose to ignore.

Regardless, since we are a secular nation rather than a Christian one, Christian teachings are irrelevant when it comes to civil law. This is not an attack on Christianity, just a statement about how our government functions. Christian teachings are no more relevant to the functioning of our government than are Muslim teachings, Buddhist teachings, or the teachings of any other religion. And as long as we have marriage between two people as part of our civil laws, equality is very much the issue.

I just don’t like to “throw the first stone”. In other words, none of us is perfect, and I don’t know why people like to criticize the way other people live their lives. I’m imperfect, and I would rather try to improve myself, rather than spending time criticizing others. We are only on this earth for a short time, and I’m in favor of helping each other and building each other up.

Jake: I am impressed by the quality of of some of these comments. While I thrive on these discussions, when I write my thoughts down, it does not always come off as positive. I only hope people understand that this is a fault of my inability to communicate, and not what is in my heart. (Another discussion for another time might be how suitable the medium of Facebook is for having these kinds of conversations: a long discussion over a bottle of fine Scotch might be a more conducive environment.) At any rate, I will try, as best I can, to respond to a few items. The risk in these sort of thing is that too many issues are raised that can possibly be dealt with in a reasonable amount of space – but I will try nonetheless.

First, you raise a very good point about the President having not introduced federal legislation about same-sex marriage. Of course, for any sitting President, there are issues they support for which they have not introduced legislation (limits on time, energy, political capital, etc., will influence this), so the “lack of” does not mean he wouldn’t support such legislation. His comments indicate that he would; however, I am well aware that I am speculating – so your point is well taken.

First, let’s deal with the issue of what the Bible says and what it doesn’t say, and how much of what it says has been “overturned” either in other places in the Bible itself or by the various periods in Christian history. The best way to look at this is to note that Christianity claims, and has always claimed, the inerrancy of Scripture only in matters of faith and morals. In matters of science, it most certainly does not. In matter of prescribed worship – this is obviously something that can be changed organically throughout history. But in matters of doctrine and morals, I am not aware of where Christianity has changed its proverbial tune. It has been consistent throughout the centuries. (Now, of course, we will run into the side issue of the various branches of Christianity and their interpretation of Scripture – an issue that most certainly needs more space – but at least in their insistence that Scripture is inerrant in faith and morals, Christians have consistency.) At this point, I would turn those Christian supporter of same-sex marriage to the strong New Testament admonitions of St. Paul, a repeated phenomenon, against such an idea.)

Second, I would point out that, while we are not a nation with an official religion (deliberately so), neither are we entirely secular. The God of Christianity is invoked in the founding documents. Nevertheless, I am in agreement with you that the “laws” particular to Christianity are no more important for our governance than the laws particular to Islam. This is an excellent point, and duly noted. However, the argument I offered (that this is not primarily about “equality”) was not premised on Christian doctrine. It was premised on a philosophy in which we understand that the objective nature of things (either things of matter or things of ideas, in this case marriage) is prior to equality itself. True equality, like true freedom, must be built upon the objective nature of the things themselves. I stand by the example of a male being unable to give birth. Let’s compare this with the right to vote. Being able to cast a rational vote in not something that is inherent to maleness or femaleness (or the color of one’s skin), but rather something that is inherent to (adult) HUMANNESS. Thus, equality built upon this principle would suggest that it is immoral for a government to prohibit a female or an African American from voting. (I would point out at this time the invocation of a morality that supersedes government constructed laws; something is not moral simply because it is written into current law, nor is it moral because it is voted on by the majority of citizens.) Note here that the ability to cast a rational vote is not something inherent to being a child, which is why it is no way a violation of equality when we prohibit a five-year-old from voting. On the other hand, the ability to give birth is something inherent to femaleness, not to humanness. So, in a similar way, it is not a violation of equality to suggest that men do not have the “right” to give birth. (In fact, “right” here is not the correct word – it is too ambiguous.) It would, however, be a severe violation of equality and a moral abomination to suggest that a particular race of women did not have the right to give birth.

The question, then, is where does marriage fit into this scheme? Is the objective nature of marriage limited to one man and one woman, or is its nature broader than that? I understand quite well that many people disagree on the answer to this question. But the only thing I was suggesting in the original post was that the question of marriage law(s) BEGIN with this question rather than an undefined and ambiguous notion of equality. What is the very nature of marriage, and how does one defend this nature? This is where we must begin, and note that neither this paragraph nor the preceding one has mentioned Christianity (oops … until now!). Those who wish to defend marriage as that which is confined to one man and one woman do not do so based solely on Christian (or Muslim, or etc.) principles, but rather on principles of natural law – in a similar way to why we defend the inherent immorality of being able to arbitrarily kill someone or steal from someone.

Finally, I appreciate your comment about not throwing the first stone. We should not cast stones at individuals. I would, however caution against the confusion of throwing stones at individuals (of which I am sure that I am guilty form time to time), and the pointing out of erroneous positions. When I, or others, criticize same-sex marriage, it is no more throwing stones than the original charge of discrimination or implied violation of equality. To suggest that the criticism of gay marriage is a violation of equality and an act of discrimination is a point that one has the right to make, and in no way do I take it as throwing stones. On the other hand, then, when I suggest that a marriage between two people of the same sex is a violation of the nature of marriage itself, it is also not an act of stone throwing.

I would leave readers with this: a concise statement of my position. We should distinguish here between my political position and my moral position. It should be clear by now that my moral position is that the very nature of marriage includes one man and one woman, so marriage between two people of the same sex is not possible. Vows can be exchanged, but a valid marriage is not confected. It is no more a reality than me self-proclaiming that I am still 18 years old. I can say the words, but it doesn’t change reality.

However, my political position is much simpler, and I am curious what others here think about this. The government should have nothing to do with marriage. Why would they bother defining it in the first place? Why would they bother getting into the documents/certification? Nothing good can come of this except a conflict between Church and State. The government should stay out of it altogether and leave it up to private institutions (religious or otherwise). This solves the problem altogether, and then politicians (Democrat or Republican) would have no business making this part of their campaign.

[Note to my American Catholic readers: I am sure there are those who will take issue with me on this. You can see my libertarian bent coming through.]

Respondent: In law, marriage is a commitment between two people that has implications of rights of all kinds, financial implications, etc. There is, in law, no expectation of reproduction. So that “natural law” you refer to is not really of concern in the eyes of the civil union.

I think it would be preferable if the government had never called the civil union a “marriage” because it confuses the religious and the civil sides. If the civil union had always been called just that, and “marriage” left to religious institutions, we wouldn’t have nearly such an issue. But that’s not the way history developed and I can’t imagine we’d have any success going to that now.

So, in light of the fact that marriage has a civil definition, it should not – must not – be up to the government or anyone else to decide which consenting adults can join in such a fashion.

Jake: These are excellent points. Supposing we could reinvent the whole thing, I am wondering if you agree that the government should have never been involved with whole business to begin with? It seems like your argument is, “this is how things have developed, and so …” But what if we could go back? Would it not be better to have the government out of the business altogether?

Further, there is a slight problem with “in the law, there is no exception for reproduction.” You are correct, of course, and this I don’t dispute, but this suggests that the “answer” to the question at hand has in large part to do with what is in current law? Surely we can’t use that as a litmus test, otherwise if the legislature passes an act that in fact does put reproduction as part of the definition, then you would have to join my side (in conclusion, but not argument) by saying, “Well, this is what the law says now.” The question here, I think, is not what the law says, but what it SHOULD say, and laws are in fact based on the natural law, otherwise they have no weight.

Further, if the definition of marriage is expanded past one man and one woman, I would ask where it stops. It must, after all, stop somewhere. If the definition cannot discriminate based on gender, can it discrimination based on number (can three people enter into a union); can it discriminate based on age; can it discriminate based on a definition of “person” (while not identical, in the eyes of the law, a cooperation is a sort of legal “person”, so should an individual be able to marry a cooperation, as absurd as that sounds)? It all gets very sticky, because at some point if the government is to be involved in the institution of marriage, then it must issue some sort of definition.

The larger issue here is the foundation of civil law. If we are not to base it on the natural law, then on what DO we base it? Is it founded on majority vote? Surely that can’t be, or we would have to defend past laws that most of us would consider highly immoral – we would have to defend them with, “Well, that was the sentiment in the country at the time.” And besides, I don’t think people in practice actuality believe this, otherwise we would never enter into these conversations – we would stop the argument simply by quoting current law. The mere fact that people see State laws prohibiting same-sex marriage as unjust and discriminatory laws means that they are using some sort of natural morality as a basis for judgement.

Respondent: What is your definition of natural law? Examples of homosexual pairing are found in species throughout the animal kingdom. Does that make it natural?

If our government gets out of the marriage business altogether, great. I would be happy with that. Let consenting adults do as they will.

Jake: The definition of natural law is that which is in the “nature” of whatever is under discussion. It is broader than the “natural world” (which I take to mean the world of matter) – and this seems to be how you are using the term. Every being by virtue of its existence is equipped with a nature by which it exists. Various beings can act either within or outside of that nature. An overly simplistic example would be a chair serving as a paper weight. It is not in the nature of a chair to act as a paper weight, and while it is possible for it to do so, the object in questing at that moment is acting more as a paper weight than a chair – it is acting outside its nature. My opinion of the matter is that even homosexual pairings that exist in the natural world are not consistent with the nature of sexual union. I know this is confusing, and the confusion has much to do with modern science and its reduction of the four causes to one (the material), so that “nature” is reduced to “that which is in the natural world.” We thus, as you wisely hinted at, must first define our terms.

Humans are different from much of the created universe in that we can actively choose, through an authentically free will, to act in a way consistent with our nature as human persons (or as male and female, if that be the case). While homosexual relations in the broader animal kingdom are, in my view, not consistent with the nature of the animal and its sexual union, the animal in question cannot be culpable for such action for lack of their free will. We, on the other hand, can. We can actively choose to act in accordance with our nature.

Regarding your second statement – I do believe we actually agree!

Respondent: I just think “natural law” is more nuanced and subtle that you seem to.

Jake: It absolutely is nuanced. There is no doubt about it. But this does not mean that it doesn’t exist and that we are not bound to both discover and respect it.

Respondent: So the idea that marriage must be between a man and a woman seems to me to be based on a simplistic view of natural law.

Jake: To the best of your knowledge, what is the nature of marriage?

Respondent: Two people in a loving, committed relationship, agreeing to spend their lives together.

Jake: Now that you have offered a description of the nature of marriage, I would ask you to defend it. (And while we’re at it, we should clarify a couple terms: do you really mean “two” or could it be more? “Committed” means what? How much of their lives are they agreeing to spend together?)


At this point, the conversation dropped off. It has been a few days, and “Respondent” has not responded. I was trying to drive in the end that people will offer their own definition of marriage, but be completely unable to defend where that definition comes from, which leaves it at the ambiguous level of personal opinion. The Christian concept of the nature of marriage is based on numerous things, from biology to theology. While there are those who will disagree with the concept and the argument, we can at least stand firm in being the only ones who seem to be offering an argument at all that rises above the level of opinion.

This is why I tried so hard to keep the conversation on the “lower” level of nature. In the end, the “other side” must offer their own concept of how they understand the nature of marriage, and, more importantly, they must defend it.

UPDATE:  It seems that my interlocutor has finally responded, and it seems that the conversation has come to an end.  Here are the final two posts.

Respondent:  Frankly, I’m losing interest in this thread. But I’d say that whatever we offer/allow for heterosexual couples must be offered/allowed for homosexual couples as well.

Jake:  I understand your loss of interest.  This drives at one of my side points about Facebook and it not being very conducive to these sorts of discussions.  The energy it takes is ten-fold what would be necessary in a face-to-face conversation.  On your own time, I would challenge you to think deeply about the following:  Your final conclusion seems to skirt the issue of the nature of marriage and fall back on an undefined notion of equality. ” Whatever we offer/allow to heterosexual couples must be offered/allowed for homosexual couples as well.”  The problem with this is that it simply CANNOT be.  Examples of such impossibility include the ability to conceive a child through the process of intercourse.  This is “allowed” for a heterosexual couple, but not for a homosexual couple,. This is not for lack of equality but rather for lack of biology. This, then, only begs the original question about marriage and its nature. Is it, by nature, a reality that can only exist between a man and woman, or is its nature broader than that?  This is why I have worked so hard to get people to (1) identify what they think the nature of marriage is, and (2) defend it on some grounds other than, “This is my opinion.”

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15 Responses to A Not-So-Fictitious Dialog about the First Gay President

  • Why is the state in the marriage business at all? Well, mandatory civil marriage was first introduced on 9 November 1791 in France, by a National Assembly that had just turned 10 million landless peasants into heritable proprietors. The Civil Code contains no definition of marriage, but generations of jurists have found a “functional definition” in the rule that “the chid conceived or born in marriage has the husband for father.” No one will deny that the state has a clear interest in the filiation of children being clear, certain and incontestable. It is central to its concern for the upbringing and welfare of the child, for protecting rights and enforcing obligations between family members and to the orderly succession to property. To date, no better, simpler, less intrusive means than marriage have been found for ensuring, as far as possible, that the legal, biological and social realities of paternity coincide. And that is no small thing.

    So, the state would have to have some other mechanism to replace mandatory civil marriage, but what? Call them “Civil Solidarity Pacts,” or “Nuptial Bonds” or what you will, if the presumption of paternity applies, they are simply civil marriage by another name. What is more, one would have, in reality, two classes of Pact, those between opposite-sex couples, to whom alone the presumption can apply and those between same-sex couples, to whom it cannot. In Belgium and the Netherlands, which allow SSM, the presumption applies only to opposite-sex couples. In other words, one has two classes of marriage – So much for “marriage equality.”

    No amount of tinkering with the Civil Code will change the facts on the ground; it will simply make the law incoherent.

    As a footnote, I have never seen that the morality or otherwise of same-sex unions has any bearing on the question, one way or the other. In fact, I regard it as a distraction.

  • There is, in law, no expectation of reproduction

    The exact opposite is true. In law, there is a high expectation of procreation. It’s not that the law requires it occur, but that the law reasonbly foresees it will. Therefore, to protect the interests of potential offspring, the state gets invovled precisely because that commitment between two people has implications of rights of all kinds, financial implications, etc. for the OFFSPRING, who is in a sense, not represented in the relationship (at least, not without conflicting interests by the putative parents). Thus the state, which has an interest in protecting the next generation of citizens, has an interest being involved in the arrangement. Precisely because SSM does not involve procreation and the state does not foresee it to occur in such a relationship, the state has no interest in supporting it (or likewise, regulating it). My political position would be that the state need not recognize SSMs, but at the same time, not “criminalize” them by penalizing those who want to enter into them for their own purposes. In short, simply ignore them.

    I have to admit, though, your respondents were pretty cordial given the topic.

  • I just noticed that you merged several people into “Respondent”.

    I know how frustrating this kind of conversation can be. You’ll get one person saying that your argument is un-Biblical, and if you defend your argument, you’ll get another person complaining that you’re basing your argument on the Bible. The internet is the worst thing to ever happen to structured argumentation.

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  • Since all human beings have come into existence through a father and a mother, who has a right to argue otherwise, or impose their argument on minor children? Matrimony is the correct legal term for marriage.

  • This might be one of the best conversations I have seen regarding this topic and one of the most well reasoned positions as to why SSM cannot be recognized by the state. I agree with your two commenters, though, the state does have an invested interest in recognizing and regulating marriages between one man and one woman. I like c matt’s idea of not recognizing or regulating same sex marriages, though. However, there is still the problem of adoption and making sure children are raised in the best possible environment. How would you handle that situation, c matt?

  • Very good dialog. Facebook conversations are an acquired skill.

    Not all wine is champagne. If we want to label some other wine and call it champagne, that does not make the reality of what’s in the bottle champagne. We can say this does not affect anyone else’s champagne by doing so, but can all see it is clearly a deliberate action to diminish the qualities of true champagne.

    If I see a homeless and malnourished family in Appalachia on the TV news, something is amiss if I say that has nothing to do with my properly-housed, well-fed family here in Kansas. Love compels me to try and do what I can to correct the situation and help that family.

  • Sadly I have found that conversations on Facebook usually end with ‘lack of interest’ when you have made too much sense and your conversant might have to rethink his position. That’s when the almighty “Well that’s my opinion” ends the thread. I had several of these types of conversation enders with the HHS mandate.

  • I am pretty sure that most people in my generation which grew up in filth created by Hippies and Yuppies have not heard the argument that Homosexual acts are stupid and irrational simply because what it those acts are is simply an orgiastic jacking off.

  • For the sake of clarity, do you believe that opposing the 19th amendment is incompatible with the Catholic Faith, per your implication?

  • Paul,

    I absolutely believe the opposing the 19th amendment is incompatible with the Catholic faith, and it is unclear how my comments imply otherwise. I specifically stated that it is in the nature of an adult human to e able to cast a rational vote, and therefore any law suggesting otherwise would be an injustice against that nature. (I also pointed out that it is not in the nature of a child to be able to cast a rational vote, so a law stipulating an age requirement on voting is in no way a violation of equality.)

    The question at hand is: What is the nature of marriage? Is “one man and one woman” part of its nature, or is its nature something broader?

    At this point, it is helpful to note that the conversation never got off the ground in actually arguing what the nature is. I was beginning with first-things-first, trying to get my interlocutor to understand that the “nature of marriage” is very much the issue, not an abstract and undefined notion of “equality.” The “thesis”, if you will, of my position is that equity (like freedom) is grounded in the objective nature of reality – thus, the conversation must begin with the objective nature of whatever it is we are talking about, in this case marriage.

    I hope this helps, and thanks for reading and thinking!

  • Jake- I presume you meant the 19th amendment and not the 10th amendment. This was just an aside completely irrelevant to your post but its still caught my attention.

    To continue this aside, while something like slavery is always and everywhere incompatible with the dignity of human nature, it seems to me to be a curious peculiarity of someone born in the 20th century who would make that same argument about suffrage let alone a particular gender’s right of suffrage.

  • It is funny how some atheists (not all) try to use the argument that because certain animals reproduce asexually that then means that is what would workout just fine for a person.

  • Valentin, that is not the argument that atheists are making. They are pointing out that homosexual behavior occurs in multiple species at least 22, IIRC). Given that, clearly it is not purple a matter of moral choice and is, consequently natural, though uncommon. And keep in mind that this is not an atheist argument. Many Christians accept homosexuality, some atheists deny it.

  • This is one of the best constructions for this argument I’ve seen.

    I will point out two things: 1. We can now produce human beings in a test tube. Arguably, they have no parents. Because of this, some people might think that technology has rendered the Natural Law mute. Just because in nature it takes one man and one woman to reproduce, does this mean that this should be seen as the standard for society? For most of history, human kind has been bound in one form or fashion or other into following the ways of nature. The whole reason why the progressive movement put focus on progress was that we had “to keep our society abreast with our ability as human beings”. It might help for us to find compelling arguments as to why letting the state of our technology dictate our sense of Law and Order is a bad idea.

    Please note that I’m playing devil’s advocate here, and that personally I side with the Natural Law argument. I have seen what constructing a society engineered against nature produces, and the results are chaotic and harmful.

    The second thing is about modern social media. Facebook did not ruin our dialogues. You have proven single handed that Facebook *can* be used to make a reasoned argument, just as one can write an articulate, informative and personal letter via email.

    The truth is, most people don’t bother, because they don’t have to. If you can just use two disjointed words in place of a full paragraph, why not? It’s easier and faster, right? Modern technology allows us to behave badly. it does not force our hand.

    The majority of the internet does not have a clear sense of culture. I think that this is why we see so much unformed thinking, rude commentary back and forth and so on. Perhaps it would be better to say that this is our conception of internet culture. This is why it is so easy for those who are not otherwise prone to this, fall into the same bad behaviors. As humans, we ever strive to blend in to the surrounding culture, unless we actively and at all times counter it.

    I was a part of a BBS in the 1990’s where well reasoned and articulated dialogue was the norm. It was not directly because of decisions made by the staff. The norms were enforced from below by the fellow members of the BBS, who would ask polite but probing questions and generally made trolls unwelcome. We did have trolls, but they were few and even occasionally had an original word to say.

    In a world without objective standards, no bad behavior can be credibly detected or punished effectively. Every proceeding devolves into he said, she said. Justice mutates into the Hatfield McCoy phenomenon. And yet, because people believe it is “a state of nature”, attempting to do better only provokes more Hatfield-McCoy infighting. At some point people loose sight of the fact that the best society is created at the consent of the governed. So, they turn to experts and sooth-sayers to make it all better.

    This pretty much describes the overall trend of politics in this country for the past 100 years. I had the privilege to watch this cycle develop over the course of a weekend at a Neo-Pagan Convention. My former life was quite instructive.

Georgetown: Final Examinations for the Bishops

Saturday, May 5, AD 2012


There is no doubt that the Church in America is being tried and tested.  Not that she hasn’t been through this before, and not that it is a test isolated to the American prelates – but let not this diminish the current reality in which we find ourselves.  Make no mistake: the American Church is at a crossing point, or rather at the point of the Cross.  If the events of the last four years are not evidence enough, the sufficient proof lies in the unprecedented, stalwart response by our Episcopacy to at least two events: the invitation of President Obama to speak at Notre Dame’s general commencement ceremony, and the recent attack on religious liberty by the Department of Health and Human Services led by Secretary Kathleen Sebelius.
Yet those opposed to the Church (in many cases from within the Church herself) will not relent so easily; it would be naive to think otherwise.  The attacks of the last couple years have not been the first, and they most certainly will not be the last.  While Christian hope teaches us that the battle has been won … while we know ahead of time the outcome of the great cosmic struggle between good and evil … we also know that it will be a battle until the end.  And each of us, as a Catholic faithful to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, must decide what part he will play in the inevitable victory.  So too must each Bishop.  He must listen to the call of our Lord present in his consecration as the successor of the Apostles, and he must stand firm in his role to defend and protect the Church from the onslaught of prejudice, injustice, and violence against the human person.  When we stand before the Lord at the end of it all, we will not be judged on the final outcome of the war – that victory belongs to Christ and His Cross – but we will be judged on what part we played, or failed to play, as individuals to bring about the triumph of the Cross.
“The gates of Hell shall not prevail against it.”  How often have we as Catholics read these words from our Lord?  How often have we rested in the comfort of a promise that speaks to the Church’s indefectibility?  And rightly so, for contained in these words is the assurance that the Church will prevail until the end.  Yet lest we reduce these words to merely a defensive strategy, consider that the Lord did not say, “The gates of the Church shall withstand the attacks of Hell.”  The “gates” of which he speaks are not those that protect the Church from the advance of Hell’s army.  No, the gates in this passage are the gates of Hell, and Christ’s promise is that the gates of Hell shall not prevail against the Church.  These words are words of spiritual warfare, for in them we find more than the Church’s charge to defend herself against evil – we find too a clarion call for the Church to attack the gates of Hell.
The Church finds herself in a time of trial, and the Bishops are to be commended for there defense against evil.  Yet it seems that we are forever being reactive.  Of course, this will always be the case to one degree or another – for the advance of evil will not cease.  Yet perhaps it is time to go on the offensive so we can see the reality of Christ’s promise to Peter, a promise that foretells the crumbling of Hell’s gates.  Perhaps it is time to call a spade a spade, to refer to evil by its proper name, and to stop waiting for events that will eventually require a response.
This is all contextual, of course, for on Friday morning we read that Georgetown University, a Catholic institution, has invited the Secretary of Health and Human Services, Kathleen Sebelius, to be a commencement speaks at their Public Policy Institute.  (For the sake of clarity, this is not the university’s general commencement.)  Is this better or worse than the Notre Dame scandal from a few years ago in which President Obama was invited to speak at the general commencement?  I leave that to those who want to attempt a more formal analysis of the two situations.  For my own part, there are at least three reasons why this event at Georgetown stands out even from Obama’s infamous “common ground” speech in which he promised to work with the Catholic Church.
First, this event comes after the Notre Dame speech.  For the first time in a recent memory, the United States Episcopacy spoke out vigorously against a University that would invite a speaker who is in public and direct conflict with the teachings of the Church and the message of Jesus Christ.  The impressive thing about the response was its form, not as a generic letter from the USCCB, but as individual letters from over 80 bishops.  The message was clear: those opposed to basic teachings on life and liberty should not be invited to spread their message at a Catholic institution.  Moreover, they should not be bestowed degrees of honor.  In light of this, there is no other way to interpret Georgetown’s invitation to Ms. Sebelius: this is a deliberate statement that the administration at this Catholic university cares not what the American episcopacy thinks or teaches.  They have no intention of listening to their Church, but rather will continue to act as they see fit.  In other words, they are attempting to usurp the bishops and make themselves a separate magisterium.
Second, Secretary Sebelius’ invitation comes in the context of the HHS debacle.  If the response to Obama’s presence at Notre Dame was impressive, consider that 191 bishops representing 100% of dioceses in the United States issued a personal statement agains the HHS mandate.  To make it worse, the invitation was extended to the individual who is largely responsible for the mandate.  Once more, there is no other interpretation: the Georgetown administration is in direct conflict with the entire American episcopacy, saying to them that the staunch rejection of the HHS mandate matters not.  They are an independent university, and they will invite who they will.
Third, Sebelius is Catholic.  While President Obama’s lack of membership in our Church does not give him license to violate the basic principles of natural law in his private opinions or public policies, the Catholicism of the Secretary of Health and Human Services does seem to add a bit more weight to the scandal.  This is an individual that has persisted in grave, public, and manifest sin by supporting policies in contrary to her own Church, and for this reason she has been instructed not to present herself for communion in both her home diocese of Kansas City and the diocese of Washington D.C.  While she has not been formally excommunicated, what does it say that a Catholic institution would invite to speak an individual who has consciously separated herself from full communion with the Catholic Church?  If Kathleen Sebelius is guilty of scandal, how much more is the administration at Georgetown?
I began with a call to battle, a call to not wait until situations such at these present themselves, but rather to attack them at their root.  Instead of defending the gates of Church against the advance of evil, perhaps the Church should beginning realizing her mission to advance on the gates of Hell.  An positive example of this in recent news is the instruction from the Vatican regarding the Leadership Conference of Women Religious.  In writing about this document, I mentioned how impressed I was with its specific nature.  In particular was the directive that “LCWR programs for (future) Superiors and Formators will be reformed, Speakers/presenters at major programs will be subject to approval by Delegate [Archbishop Sartain].”
Here’s a suggestion: in light of recent failures on the part of Catholic universities to exercise prudence in selecting candidates for large public speeches and the bestowal of honorary degrees, perhaps the American hierarchy should insist that any university wishing to consider themselves Catholic will have their list of speakers subject to the approval of the local Ordinary.  Perhaps they should take this upon themselves before the Vatican requires it, before “local Ordinary” is replaced by “the Delegate.”  Then again, maybe a Vatican response would be more effective.
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14 Responses to Georgetown: Final Examinations for the Bishops

  • When Cardinal Arinze (Pope Benedict XVI’s special envoy) spoke at Georgetown University, perhaps a year or two ago, two-thirds of the faculty walked off stage while he was speaking in protest and one half of the student body rose and walked out in protest to Cardinal Arinze’s condemnation of homosexual behavior. Their minds at Georgetown are made up, don’t bother them with the truth. When two-thirds of the faculty are insubordinate heretics, what hope is there for the faithful? If the School of Public Policy at Georgetown is so disabused of the truth, as is Sebelius, that they want her to speak, let the students ask sebelius how she can valid herself without acknowledging the existence of God?

  • Too bad the Archdiocese of Washington has an archbishop whose preferred method of responding to such behavior is to imitate a doormat.

    Very convincingly, I’ll grant.

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  • The time is long overdue for the establishment of an imprimatur to guarantee that institutions that call themselves “Catholic” in some way or other are genuinely Catholic.

    Recent Church scandals grew from bishops looking the other way (or failing to even think to look) as problems grew and grew. This practice must stop. The ongoing lack of the proverbial ounce of prevention has already cost millions of souls – yet no cure is in sight.

  • This is the opinion of a carpenter: Georgetown is an institution that has sustained catastrophic damage from the storm. It is unfit for human habitation. Repairs are possible but would be prohibitively expensive. The best use of resources would be to TEAR IT DOWN, completely disassociate this ruin from the rest of the Church that is still stable and habitable. The unstable nature of Georgetown is threatening the stability of the rest.

    Personally, I couldn’t give a fig for georgetown, all this hand-wringing over what to do is ridiculous! Disassociate from the institute, disown it and remove it from our common heritage. It’s been over for a long, long time.

  • Olive branches will be pruned from the Tree – Romans 11:15-24:

    15* For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead? 16 If the dough offered as first fruits is holy, so is the whole lump; and if the root is holy, so are the branches. 17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in their place to share the richness * of the olive tree, 18 do not boast over the branches. If you do boast, remember it is not you that support the root, but the root that supports you. 19 You will say, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20* That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast only through faith. So do not become proud, but stand in awe. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 22 Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness to you, provided you continue in his kindness; otherwise you too will be cut off. 23 And even the others, if they do not persist in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again. 24 For if you have been cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree.

  • However it is done that an institution is cast out from the Church, Georgetown University should be. Cut the ties that bind, yank the funding and support, and let ’em be what they want to be. Defrock some priests, excommunicate a few administartion officials and de-list the whole thing.

    Round 1.

  • Can one expect anything less of a supposedly Catholic institution residing in the fiefdom of the execrable Donald Cardinal Wuerl?

  • Is this better or worse than the Notre Dame scandal from a few years ago in which President Obama was invited to speak at the general commencement?

    I am with you – i think it is worse for the reasons you give. Also, I am informed by a Notre Shame alumnus that inviting the sitting president to give a speech is some sort of tradition, so I suppose they had that fig leaf re Obama. With Sebelius, it is full monty.

    I don’t know what the Church can do to revoke official Catholicity from universities or other organizations, but it seems it is high time they do what they can.

  • Is there a college “in the Jesuit tradition” which has not spit in the face of the Church? Bishops have no authority over institutions of religious orders. Thus have Jesuit institutions been able to mock the bishops in whose dioceses they are located.
    The history of the order with respect to political powers is not admirable. There is a reason for the opprobrious term “jesuitical”. It is finding excuses for immoral behavior. Consider that Georgetown [and Fordham] were originally funded from the sale of dark-skinned persons called “slaves”. The much criticised Roger Taney freed such persons as he inherited and gave them each a burse. The Jesuitical fathers sold them, and into the deep South. The current crop will point to the Jesuit martyrs, but they will not act like the Jesuit martyrs. They act instead like the Jesuit sellers of slaves.

  • The lack of fidelity to the teachings of the Church Magisterium and the consequential promulgation of error throughout the Chuch in the United States, is especially scandalizing to the young and to those who are vulnerable to error because they do not know the faith. Our Lord Jesus was very clear in His admonishion to not lead others astray: Mark 9:42 “Whoever causes one of thes little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were hung round his neck and he were thrown into the sea.” Matthew:18: 5-6: “Whoever receives one such child in my name receives me; But whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, It would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened around his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.

    To many shepherds in the Catholic Church of the United States, the Lord has this to say: Jeremiah 23: 1 “Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture!” says the Lord. Jeremiah 50: 6 “My people have been lost sheep; their shepherds have led them astray”

    From the “YOUCAT” page 25: “Faith requires the free will and clear understanding of a person when he accepts the divine invitation.” Please notice and emphasize “clear understanding.” Clear understanding often has not been given because the Catholic Church in the United States has not been faithful to the witness of Authentic Truth as taught by the Churches Magistrium.

  • Georgetown is in Cardinal Donald Wuerl’s Diocese. This mess is his responsbility since 2006. He has the authority to keep any organization or university from calling themselve’s Catholic. This is very important in saving souls and stopping the mortal sin of Scandal. Heresy and Schism abound with no action from the Cardinal in the Washington, DC area Diocese, because there has been no serious effort to actively encourage the reading of the CCC which all Catholics are required to adhere to.

  • Code of Canon Law: “Can. 808 Even if it is in fact Catholic, no university is to bear the title or name of Catholic university without the consent of competent ecclesiastical authority.”
    “Can. 810 §2. The conferences of bishops and diocesan bishops concerned have the duty and right of being watchful so that the principles of Catholic doctrine are observed faithfully in these same universities.”
    “Can. 812 Those who teach theological disciplines in any institutes of higher studies whatsoever must have a mandate from the competent ecclesiastical authority.”

    So what is Cardinal Weurl going to do about Georgetown in his Diocese?

  • If Rome can discipline the liberal nuns, would it be fair to leave the Jesuits without correction? Maybe this one has to come from the Vatican.

A Habit (or lack-thereof) of Disobedience

Saturday, April 21, AD 2012

By now, most of the Catholic blogging world has heard of Archbishop Peter Sartain’s appointment by the Vatican.  Whispers succinctly delivers the news:

Citing “serious doctrinal problems” found over the course of a four-year study of the umbrella-group representing the majority of the US’ communities of nuns, the Holy See has announced a thoroughgoing shake-up of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR), naming Archbishop Peter Sartain of Seattle as its delegate to conduct an overhaul of the group.

“Serious doctrinal problems.”  This is either the understatement of the century or … actually, it is the understatement of the century … there is no other way to put it.  The “Doctrinal Assessment” comes to us from the Congregatio Pro Doctrina Fidei at which our dear Holy Father spent much of his pre-papal days.  It is worth reading in its entirety.  Among the highlights are little gems like this:

On the doctrinal level, this crisis is characterized by a diminution of the fundamental Christological center and focus of religious consecration which leads, in turn, to a loss of a ‘constant and lively sense of the Church’ among some Religious.

Or this:

The current doctrinal and pastoral situation of the LCWR is grave and a matter of serious concern, also given the influence the LCWR exercises on religious Congregations in other parts of the world.

Lest we think the critique void of specifics:

Addresses given during LCWR annual Assemblies manifest problematic statements and serious theological, even doctrinal errors. The Cardinal offered as an example specific passages of Sr. Laurie Brink’s address about some Religious “moving beyond the Church” or even beyond Jesus. This is a challenge not only to core Catholic beliefs; such a rejection of faith is also a serious source of scandal and is incompatible with religious life. Such unacceptable positions routinely go unchallenged by the LCWR, which should provide resources for member Congregations to foster an ecclesial vision of religious life, thus helping to correct an erroneous vision of the Catholic faith as an important exercise of charity. Some might see in Sr. Brink’s analysis a phenomenological snapshot of religious life today. But Pastors of the Church should also see in it a cry for help.

And then there is this:

The Cardinal spoke of this issue in reference to letters the CDF received from “Leadership Teams” of various Congregations, among them LCWR Officers, protesting the Holy See’s actions regarding the question of women’s ordination and of a correct pastoral approach to ministry to homosexual persons, e.g. letters about New Ways Ministry’s conferences. The terms of the letters suggest that these sisters collectively take a position not in agreement with the Church’s teaching on human sexuality. It is a serious matter when these Leadership Teams are not providing effective leadership and example to their communities, but place themselves outside the Church’s teaching.

Then one of my favorites:

The Cardinal noted a prevalence of certain radical feminist themes incompatible with the Catholic faith in some of the programs and presentations sponsored by the LCWR, including theological interpretations that risk distorting faith in Jesus and his loving Father who sent his Son for the salvation of the world. Moreover, some commentaries on “patriarchy” distort the way in which Jesus has structured sacramental life in the Church; others even undermine the revealed doctrines of the Holy Trinity, the divinity of Christ, and the inspiration of Sacred Scripture.

And this:

The documentation reveals that, while there has been a great deal of work on the part of LCWR promoting issues of social justice in harmony with the Church’s social doctrine, it is silent on the right to life from conception to natural death, a question that is part of the lively public debate about abortion and euthanasia in the United States. Further, issues of crucial importance to the life of Church and society, such as the Church’s Biblical view of family life and human sexuality, are not part of the LCWR agenda in a way that promotes Church teaching. Moreover, occasional public statements by the LCWR that disagree with or challenge positions taken by the Bishops, who are the Church’s authentic teachers of faith and morals, are not compatible with its purpose.

But one of the best paragraphs comes by way of conclusion:

This action by the Holy Father should be understood in virtue of the mandate given by the Lord to Simon Peter as the rock on which He founded his Church (cf. Luke 22:32): “I have prayed for you, Peter, that your faith may not fail; and when you have turned to me, you must strengthen the faith of your brothers and sisters.” This Scripture passage has long been applied to the role of the Successors of Peter as Head of the Apostolic College of Bishops; it also applies to the role of the Pope as Chief Shepherd and Pastor of the Universal Church. Not least among the flock to whom the Pope’s pastoral concern is directed are women Religious of apostolic life, who through the past several centuries have been so instrumental in building up the faith and life of the Holy Church of God, and witnessing to God’s love for humanity in so many charitable and apostolic works.

Toward the end of the document are very specific directive given to “the Delegate” (Archbishop Sartain).  The “greatest hits” are:

The mandate of the Delegate is to include the following … 2) To review LCWR plans and programs, including General Assemblies and publications, to ensure that the scope of the LCWR’s mission is fulfilled in accord with Church teachings and discipline. In particular: Systems Thinking Handbook will be withdrawn from circulation pending revision, LCWR programs for (future) Superiors and Formators will be reformed, Speakers/presenters at major programs will be subject to approval by Delegate. … 4) To review and offer guidance in the application of liturgical norms and texts. For example: The Eucharist and the Liturgy of the Hours will have a place of priority in LCWR events and programs.

I don’t wish to tie this directly to the HHS debacle; it is, after all, a much wider issue.  However, one can’t help but wonder if the hierarchy, in light of HHS and events such as the Notre Dame scandal from several years back, is finally getting serious about making sure that those who profess to be “Catholic” are actually acting Catholic in public.  Where better to start than with priests and religious?  For my own part, I greet this effort with a resounding, “Amen.”
Roma locuta est, causa finita est.  There was a time when this phrase was respected and venerated by those within the Church, and I deeply believe that it can and will be once more.
I ran across the Washington Post’s web coverage of the Vatican announcement, aptly titled “Vatican: U.S. Catholic sisters, nuns making serious theological errors.”  It too is worth your time reading, but for vastly different reasons than the Vatican statement itself.  It contains excerpt such as this:

[Sr. Simone] Campbell sees the current tension between male and female Catholic clergy as a part of a post-Vatican II democratic evolution within the church, but worries that the male leaders fail to recognize the “witness of women religious.”

Such a claim that the male leaders fail to recognize the witness of women religious is not only irresponsible, it is also ignorant.  Both John Paul II and Benedict XVI have spoken widely about this important witness … but only when it is actually a witness to the faith, and never when it is contrary to the faith.  Yet the phrase that caught my eye was, “the current tension between male and female Catholic clergy.”  The mis-categorization of “female clergy” by the Post is ironically a strong argument in favor of the Vatican’s charge of “serious doctrinal problems.”
Sr. Campell continues,

It’s painfully obvious that the leadership of the church is not used to having educated women form thoughtful opinions and engage in dialogue.

This is a misunderstanding of the the term “educated.”  “Instructed” (albeit improperly) Sr. Campell may be, but certainly not “educated,” at least not in the Catholic faith.  Even a dictionary recognizes that being educated means having been entrusted with intellectual, moral, and social instruction within the field in question.  The problem with the LCWR leadership is that they are distinctly not educated in the Catholic faith, nor are they educated in the authentic and beautiful witness that constitutes Catholic consecrated life, as evidenced by the numerous examples cited in the Vatican document.  They may be educated in something other than Catholicism, but they most certainly are lacking in education, not to mentioned formation, within their own faith tradition.
Sr. Campbell, however, enlightens the Post on the real motivation behind the called-for reform:

“I think we scare them,” Sr. Simone Campbell … said of the church’s male hierarchy.

Actually, for quite some time, I have thought this very same thing, except in reverse.  Why is there so much animosity towards orthodoxy in the last several years?  Orthodoxy is nothing new.  There have been those who have championed for quite some time the very same thoughts contained in the recent Vatican statement.  The reason there is an uproar now is because people are beginning to sense that the tide is turning.  It is the very same reason why people are suddenly outspoken by the extraordinary form of the Mass.  While its presence in the Church has never ceased, even following the Second Vatican Council, people have recently begun to sense that things are changing.  They look at the seminarians coming out of seminary … they listen to the things coming out of the Holy See … they watch the appointments made by the Holy Father … and they know that the tide is turning towards Catholicism (to shamelessly steal from Dave Hartline) … and this terrifies them.
By way of a humorous conclusion, the most amusing part of the Washington Post article was the pictures they chose.  Under the title of “Vatican: U.S. Catholic sisters, nuns making serious theological errors,” we find this picture:

And this one:

Now I don’t want to judge a situation purely by a picture, so feel free to correct me here … but … I hardly think the delightful sisters in the these photos are those being called out by the recent Vatican instruction.  In the first picture we have a group of young, energetic, and full-habited sisters, and at the risk of overgeneralization, the young orders of which I am familiar are orthodox to the very core of their existence!  The second picture depicts a sister receiving communion on the tongue while kneeling … call me crazy, but I don’t think she preparing to deliver a lecture on women’s ordination and homosexuality.  (The tour of examples becomes even more amusing when one flips through the embedded slide show to find images of Mother Theresa, Katherine Drexel, Elizabeth Ann Seton, and a whole array of full-habited sisters.)
So why didn’t the Post choose pictures of Sr. Campbell, or even more familiar names like Sr. Carol Keehan, or Sr. Joan Chittister?  The answer is simple: the reading audience would not recognize them as the “U.S. Catholic sisters” to which the Post title refers.  Forgive the pun, but even those in the secular world are in the habit of recognizing sisters by their … well, you get the idea.
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7 Responses to A Habit (or lack-thereof) of Disobedience

  • Yeah the “here are some nuns” slideshow at the WaPo is a really weird choice, for the reason you point out.

    One of the things they do not mention is that the LCWR is actually only one of two organizations of the leaders of women’s religious orders in the US. The other is the Council of Major Superiors of Women Religious Orders, which was set up in the ’90s, in part to provide a more Catholic-friendly venue for the leaders of women religious orders that were more orthodox in their practice and teaching. A quick look at the two sites makes the difference moderately clear:


    So, it’s not as if all US nuns are even represented by the LCWR, and the sort shown in full habit in the WaPo slideshow are more likely members of the CMSWR rather than the LCWR.

    The existence of the two separate leadership councils is itself a sign of how long there have been problems with the LCWR (which was originally founded in ’50s.) It’s highly unusual for one country to have more than one council for the heads of religious orders. There is only one in the US for the heads of male religious orders.

  • Women cannot espouse the Bride of Christ. The Faithful are entitled to the TRUTH.The seven foolish virgins did not bring enough oil of wisdom, they fell asleep, and they were barred from entrance into the wedding feast of the Lord. The Leadership Conference of Women Religious have rejected the Bride of Christ and seized the vacuum in their soul to fill it with their own definition of the Catholic Church. How fitting it is indeed that the story of the deacons being appointed to help the Apostles to do the duties of caring for the people was this week’s reading. The Leadership Conference is not leading but bringing up the rear. Everybody, but everybody, knows the needs of the people and many great lay people have taken up and filled the job, worthily. This Leadership is to point the way to Jesus Christ. Jesus will feed the multitudes as He has. This Leadership is pointing the way into submission to the despair and misery without our Eucharistic King. They probably were raised on Becoming a Person and will expend their lives in futility. This investigation into the worthless venture upon which the Leadership has embarked is the best thing Holy Mother Church is able to do for them. The Leadership Conference of Women Religious is to live in obedience to Jesus Christ. Without obedience to Jesus Christ in the Vicar of Christ, they are a church unto themselves and then the name Catholic is not theirs to use.

  • Women cannot espouse the Bride of Christ. Priests, in persona Christi espouse the Bride of Christ and bring forth the TRUTH, Jesus, for the salvation of all souls. Only by denying Jesus Christ as God-man can this nonsense continue. The High Priests were called: “THE PRINCES OF THE LORD”. The bishops are called: “THE PRINCES OF THE CHURCH”. There were no PRINCESSES OF THE LORD in the Old Testament. There are no PRINCESSES OF THE CHURCH in the New Testament. Jesus came to fulfill the law not to change it. Human sacrifice is the chief form of worship of the devil. Next, comes fornication, idol worship. Read: abortion, gay marriage, narcissism. This investigation is the best for the Catholic Church.

  • The Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity, Anima Christi.
    Denial of the human soul brought about desecration of the human body. Abortion, gay marriage, human trafficking. Rape of the human soul resulted in rape of the human body. Carl Rogers laid the foundation for CRIME, INC. Without a human soul, civilization as we know it, does not exist. Those who would deny the existence of God find that it is their own existence that is not on the books.
    Jesus Christ was crucified and died in obedience to His Father. Jesus Christ in obedience to the Scriptures rose from the dead. Denying obedience to Holy Mother Church denies to the adherents eternal life in the Resurrection of the body.
    Without acknowledging the rational, immortal soul of the sovereign person, the human being, composed of body and soul, man has no personhood, no unalienable rights endowed by our Creator when two become one, no informed consent, no free will, no power of attorney, and the Supreme Court shot itself in the foot with this one, no right to choose, no right to privacy, no right to exist that is unalienable, except to be a beast of burden to the state. According to the Dred Scott decision, even slaves had half a soul. Except, that the individuals making such judgments are cut of the same cloth, no soul, no eternal life, no infallible truth, no right to ownership of private property. This brings to mind Obama calling his grandchild a “punishment” for his daughter, as Obama is a “punishment” to his mother and a “punishment” to all of us, his abused constituents.

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Dominus Est!

Saturday, April 14, AD 2012

We occasionally hold a reading group at our home in which someone brings a selection, and we read aloud.  This past Thursday, we read through a short book (and essay, really) that I obtained back in 2009.  It prompted me to dig up the review I wrote.  Enjoy!


“It is true that if it is possible to receive on the tongue, one can also receive on the hand, both being bodily organs of equal dignity…. Yet, whatever the reasons put forth to sustain this practice, we cannot ignore what happens at the practical level when this method is used. This practice contributes to a gradual, growing weakening of the attitude of reverence toward the Scared Eucharistic Species. The earlier practice, on the other hand, better safeguards the sense of reverence. Instead, an alarming lack of recollection and an overall spirit of carelessness have entered into liturgical celebrations.”

The above words were written by the Most Reverend Malcom Ranjith, the Secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, in the Preface of a timely and concise book called Dominus Est!- It is the Lord! by the Most Reverend Athanasius Schneider. Archbishop Ranjith concludes his Preface, “I think it is now time to evaluate carefully the practice of Communion-in-the-hand and, if necessary, to abandon what was actually never called for in the Vatican II document Sacrosanctum Concilium nor by the Council Fathers but was, in fact, “accepted” after it was introduced as an abuse in some countries.”

This brief 33 page work by Bishop Schneider comes at a time when many in the Church are discussing postures during the Holy Mass. In fact, the publisher of the book muses that one cannot help but wonder whether the text itself had a role to play in the decision of Pope Benedict XVI to return to the traditional mode of distributing Communion at his Masses, on the tongue to kneeling communicants.

In order to answer this question of the correct posture for reception of the Most Holy Eucharist, we must divide the inquiry itself into two more refined questions. The first is, what is the most appropriate bodily response to the reality present in the Sacred Eucharistic Species? The second is, what are the practical implications of the suggested postures in forming our attitudes towards the God of the Universe who is fully present in the Sacrament? As noted in the previous post the fundamental principle of sacramentality is that the sacrament effects what it signifies. Therefore, not only must the postures with which we approach the Eucharist as well as our mode of reception conform to the dignity of the Sacrament itself, but also that same posture and mode of reception will affect the attitudes we form in regards to the Eucharist. In other words, our actions are not only indicative of our person, but also our person is formed by our actions.

Regarding the first question, the most appropriate bodily response to the reality present in the Sacred Eucharist Species, Bishop Schneider takes the reader through a vast array of evidence from the testimony of the Fathers of the Church, the Early Church, the Magisterium, the Liturgical Rites themselves, Holy Scripture, and finally the Eastern Churches and even the Protestant Communities. The tradition of the Church is unanimous in the insistence that the only proper response to an encounter with the Lord Jesus Christ is to fall down on one’s knees.

It is interesting to note that the liturgical norms of the Church require a separate act of reverence and adoration if one receives standing, typically a bow. However, if one receives kneeling, no such gesture is required since kneeling is already a gesture of reverence and adoration. It is true that in the United States, as elsewhere in the world, when a dignitary enters the room, the people give their sign of respect by standing up. However, Jesus Christ is no mere dignitary. The fact that we stand for important persons necessitates that we have a separate, even more dignifying response to the God of the universe.

Regarding reception on the tongue, we begin with the principle that “the attitude of a child is the truest and most profound attitude of a Christian before his Savior, who nourishes him with his Body and Blood” (Schneider, 29). We can then see that,

“The word of Christ, which invites us to receive the Kingdom of God like a child (see Luke 18:17), can find its illustration in that very beautiful and impressive manner of receiving the Eucharistic Bread directly into one’s mouth and on one’s knees. This ritual manifests in an opportune and felicitous way the interior attitude of a child who allows himself to be fed, united to the gesture of the centurion’s humility and to the gesture of ‘wonder and adoration’” (Schneider, 29).

While issues regarding the proper posture of the individual due to the sacredness of the Sacrament, the very practical implication should not go overlooked. That is, it is in receiving on the tongue that we can best minimize the risks of losing even the tiniest particle of the Sacred Host. Quoting St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Bishop Schneider exhorts us to “take care to lose no part of It [the Body of the Lord]. Such a loss would be the mutilation of your own body. Why, if you had been given gold-dust, would you not take the utmost care to hold it fast, not letting a grain slip through your fingers, lest you be so much the poorer? How much more carefully, then, will you guard against losing so much as a crumb of that which is more precious than gold or precious stones?” (34). (St. Cyril lived in the fourth century.)

Regarding the second question, the practical implications of the suggested postures in forming our attitudes towards the God of the Universe who is fully present in the Sacrament, it is time, roughly 30 or 40 years after the practice of communion standing and in-the-hand became widespread, to ask ourselves the inevitable question. Did the experiment work? Have we seen greater Eucharistic reverence, or have we seen an increase in lackadaisical attitudes? Has attendance at Mass gone up or down? Are people better able to explain and internalize the Real Presence in the Eucharist? An honest evaluation of the state of Eucharistic Piety in our time is bound to be dismal and disappointing.

What, then, are we to do? Must we have a long, drawn out process of educating the laity before we can return to the posture and mode of reception that has been far more prevalent in the history of our Church? Perhaps Romano Guardini was ahead of his time in 1965 when he prophetically wrote, “The man of today is not capable of a liturgical act. For this action, it is not enough to have instruction or education; no, initiation is needed, which at root is nothing but the performance of the act” (quoted in Schneider, 47). This is a much more eloquent way of saying that orthopraxy will bring about orthodoxy. Right actions will educate and enliven doctrine. It should be pointed out that the Holy Father, in his return to distributing communion on the tongue while kneeling, seems to have subscribe to the advice of Guardini. He simply made the return, and the people have responded.

While the mode of reception is at the center of Biship Schneider’s book Dominus Est, the book is an inspiring exposition of how to best reverence the miracle of the Eucharistic Lord.

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5 Responses to Dominus Est!

  • Agape, our mouth open to love and receive Our Lord. On our knees, where we fall in adoration. Our altar rail needs to return to assist in our failing knees the push off of knees already returned to heaven.(as well as exclude the laity from the sanctuary, another sign of reverence that may be exhibited by the unordained.) Our mouths open in love and awe, giving especial significance to the consecrated hands of the ordained priest into whose sacred hands God has entrusted HIs Only Begotten Son. The extraordinary ministers whose hands are not consecrated, and the lay ministers function in person of the priest. Not always a good thing. Without the altar rail, the sanctuary has become a market place. With the Blessed Sacrament not front and center the “fellowship” after Mass is despicable. Sometimes so rude I would not allow it in my home, with people parking their buts on the back of the pew with their backs to the altar and Jesus. Pope Benedict XVI would like to see the Kiss of Peace returned to before the Consecration. Leaving the Body of Christ alone and unattended on the altar, the Body of Christ in Whom all men are perfectly present to Jesus, the priest goes off to wish the organist peace, a Pax Christi some people do not even know WHO they are offering and WHO they are accepting. If, as a Christian, I do not love the person next to me outside the church, the Kiss of Peace is not voluntary, but enforced by the liturgy and I am not properly prepared for Jesus. The Catholic Church is Jesus Christ’s house and if one is not there to visit Jesus, they need to be gone.
    The school children at Mass were orderly. When, after Mass, the adults began their marketplace behavior, three or four of the children smiled, knowing that when they became adults, they too, could talk church.
    Father Tom asked the parishioners to leave the church in silence after the Mass of the Lord’s Supper on Holy Thursday. The parishioners began their marketplace behavior and Father Tom had a heart attack right there and has been disabled ever since.
    Two stories about reverence and holiness in church.

  • “Did the experiment work?”

    That is the one question the liturgical innovators will never ask themselves. In a way,
    their attitude is like that of today’s communists– when confronted with the failures
    and grief their ideology has begotten, they reply ‘ah, it just hasn’t been implemented
    properly yet!’.

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  • To pick up on Clinton’s point…I wonder if back in the 50’s and early 60’s, when Eucharistic faith was commonly strong among Catholics, if a communist or a free mason wanted to seriously damage that faith what would have been the most effective thing to do? Loud discourse would not have worked. Probably one of the most effective moves would have been to get Catholics receiving communion in the hand and standing up. I’m not saying that this was some kind of plot by ecclesiastical communists or masons but an innovation unwisely introduced and maintained, by well meaning but naive liturgists and bishops, some of whose theology had become cloudy.
    I appreciate the work of bishops like Cardinal Ranjith and Bishop Schneider and the witness and teaching of our Holy Father. I’ve read Bishop Schneider’s little book several times. As priests we must grow in our own love for the Eucharist and our awareness of our Catholic liturgical tradition. We also have to give a lot of consideration to how best catechize our people to enable more reverent celebrations of Holy Mass and reception of Holy Communion.

  • As a Cradle Catholic, I can never feel right receiving My Lord and My God in my hands. But to those who can do so with reverence, as well as we oldies who can no longer kneel – even if the Altar Rails are back – it is the attitude of the heart, the awe and the adoration we express as we receive our Saviour and the humility with which we go back to the Pew to listen to Him talking in our hearts and souls that really matters. What jars me most is those communicants who, immediately after receiving the Holy Communion, come back to the Pews and continue to participate in loud singing. Surely, one wonders if they ever listed to their God who has just united Himself with them,

The Human Face of Suffering

Tuesday, February 28, AD 2012

About a week ago, I wrote on a article that I read from Slate.com. Having never really been to this site, I have now found myself with the same sort of reaction one has to a horrible car accident … I just have to look. On the bright side, I think that any conservative blogger could find a lifetime of material on which to comment in but a few short days of perusing Slate’s archives.

Yesterday, there appeared a very emotional piece by a mother of a child with Tay-Sachs. My heart and prayers go out to this woman – I can’t even begin to imagine the daily struggles and emotional roller-coasters that she goes through. Yet there is something terribly unsettling with her story. Her opening paragraphs read:

This week my son turned blue, and for 30 terrifying seconds, stopped breathing. Called an “apnea seizure,” this is one stage in the progression of Tay-Sachs, the genetic disease Ronan was born with and will die of, but not before he suffers from these and other kinds of seizures and is finally plunged into a completely vegetative state. Nearly two years old, he is already blind, paralyzed, and increasingly nonresponsive. I expect his death to happen this year, and this week’s seizure only highlighted the fact that it could happen at any moment—while I’m at work, at the hair salon, at the grocery store. I love my son more than any person in the world and his life is of utmost value to me. I don’t regret a single minute of this parenting journey, even though I wake up every morning with my heart breaking, feeling the impending dread of his imminent death. This is one set of absolute truths.

Here’s another: If I had known Ronan had Tay-Sachs (I met with two genetic counselors and had every standard prenatal test available to me, including the one for Tay-Sachs, which did not detect my rare mutation, and therefore I waived the test at my CVS procedure), I would have found out what the disease meant for my then unborn child; I would have talked to parents who are raising (and burying) children with this disease, and then I would have had an abortion. Without question and without regret, although this would have been a different kind of loss to mourn and would by no means have been a cavalier or uncomplicated, heartless decision. I’m so grateful that Ronan is my child. I also wish he’d never been born; no person should suffer in this way—daily seizures, blindness, lack of movement, inability to swallow, a devastated brain—with no hope for a cure. Both of these statements are categorically true; neither one is mutually exclusive.

I want to try very hard to not be callous in my comment, but rather pastoral in the best sense of the word. As I stated from the beginning, this woman’s story is clearly one of great suffering.

That being said, what is the proverbial “missing piece” from this philosophy? I can think of three such pieces that are worth considering.


1. Suffering is Redemptive

There is something drastically “new” about the Christian take on suffering. If we define suffering as that gap between desire and reality (or between what we want and what we have), the ancient east and the modern west have opposite takes on how to close the gap. The ancient east suggests solving the problem by eliminating desires. According to Peter Kreeft:

We suffer because of the gap between what we want and what we have. This gap is created by our dissatisfaction, our wanting to get what we do not have or wanting to keep what we do have (e.g., life, which causes fear of death). Thus desire is the villain for Buddha, the cause of all suffering.


The modern west takes an opposite approach: we attempt to eliminate suffering by bringing what we have up to the level of what we want. This is true in both modern medicine and modern economics.

Although both work in opposite directions, the goal is the same: to eliminate suffering.

Christianity, through the Paschal mystery, takes a radically new approach: it redeems suffering and thus allows us to see it as a value in and of itself. As Christians, we are called to embrace suffering for the redemption of ourselves and of the world. I am reminded of the scene from Passion of the Christ where the Lord has hold of his cross and the soldiers ridicule him saying, “Look, he embraces his cross!”


2. God is the Author of Life – and the Soul is Eternal

It seems to me that this is an essential tenant of the Christian faith. The very first thing we learn about our nature from the Book of Genesis is that we are created. In other words, we are not our own, and nor are we each other’s. God is the author of life, and only God can decide when “it is time” (for lack of a better phrase). None of us ever wants to see an innocent child suffer to the degree that this mother has had to endure, yet even in these difficult cases, it is not our decision to make. Let us not forget, however, that the human soul is immortal. It has an existence well beyond the confines of time. Further, we know for certain that a baptized child not yet of the age of reason will be welcomed into Heaven – so whatever this child suffers here on earth, it will pale in comparison to the joy he will experience when standing for eternity face to face with the Living God.

There is actually something very laudable with the mother’s desire that “no person should suffer in this way.” While we embrace our own suffering, we also should work to a certain extent to minimize the suffering in others. Yet the line is crossed when first things fail to be kept first. The “first thing” in this case is the notion that God is the only one who takes the blessed soul from their suffering and welcomes them into eternal life.


3. God’s Ways are not Our Ways

This is so impossible to fully understand, and every one of us is guilty of crying out for justice, mercy, or some seemingly illogical combination of the two when faced with the hardest moments of our time here on earth. Few of us will experience moments as challenging as this mother’s trials, and virtually none of us will have to undergo the pain experienced by her son. Yet as hard as it is to grasp, the truth haunts us in the quiet of our hearts: as finite beings we are incapable of seeing the “whole picture.” We do not yet know everything that God has planned for both the world and for a particular individual. Only when it is all said and done, and we are granted the opportunity to “understand the whole” will we be able to find true solace in the events of this world.

What is curious about this point is that it is either a source of great consolation or bitter confusion. One either sees in the mystery of a plan not-yet-fulfilled a God who is a great architect that ever so slowly reveals His design, or one sees a tyrannical dictator who hides the truth from his subjects. It all comes down to the fundamental lens through which one sees the drama of life.

Regardless, my heart goes out to this woman. In fact, I can agree with her on not just one, but both of her points, properly understood. As such, I agree that they are no mutually exclusive. I believe with everything I am that she is telling the truth when she says, “I love my son more than any person in the world and his life is of utmost value to me. I don’t regret a single minute of this parenting journey, even though I wake up every morning with my heart breaking, feeling the impending dread of his imminent death.” I also believe that she deeply wishes her poor innocent son would not have to endure the suffering that he has already had to go through let alone that which is to come. Moreover, I too wish that I had it in my power to save him from any more suffering in his life. In fact, I even agree that his “life” would be better if he were already in the presence of God. Nevertheless, I cannot agree that taking a life of which we are not free to take, making a choice that we are not free to make, is a viable option towards such an end. The end can never justify the means.

I have already decided to dedicate a part of my Lenten spiritual reading and preparation to both this mother and her very blessed child, and I encourage others to do the same. Through all the suffering, it is clear that his mother as an authentic love for him, and that is something that many of our “healthy” children lack so desperately.

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12 Responses to The Human Face of Suffering

  • It would have been terribly easy to rant against this woman, to assail her apparent hypocrisy and to begin dissecting the illogic of her statements.

    But, Mr. Tawney, the example you have given is one of the best exemplifications of “the Corinthian love letter” that I have read in some time. The peace offered by your commitment to love this woman and her child regardless of anything is what’s so badly needed in so many corners of the world.

    May The Lord Bless you and keep you, sir. May He make His face to shine upon you and be gracious unto you. May He turn His face toward you and give you peace.

    I will remember you and for your intentions in my daily prayers.

  • Human suffering of such magnitude would be impossible for me to endure if I did not believe in a loving God who is lord of this world and the next. My prayers for Ronan and his mother.

  • Jake Tawney, This is a most beautiful post.

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  • Man needs more than bread (the temporal) to live.

    Without God this is unbearable.

    I bet the world will judge me “odd.” I believe the child eternally will be with God in Heaven after a finite period of worldly suffering.

  • My few thoughts…

    1. As you note, suffering is redemptive only for the Christian. We do not know what the woman’s spiritual state is, so we can hope for her conversion.

    2. We know that she acts from a place of being confronted by, and powerless to change, evil. Her indication is that she would have tried to stop the evil by committing evil, namely killing her son in utero. I say this while remaining cognizant of her suffering and her likely lack of culpability in feeling this way, and therefore hopeful for mercy for her soul.

    3. I stand with David Bentley Hart and others in the same vein who say that God has no part in this suffering, and that this suffering is not part of any sort of His action. God’s ways are inscrutable to us, indeed. However, it seems to me that we must be very careful in arguing to those who are suffering that they should have hope because God has some sort of purpose in or through the suffering of the child.

    4. Similarly, I have difficulty calling the son in this story “blessed” simply because of his suffering. His mother suffers, then states that she would kill the child or others like it because of the suffering. I do not think that suffering, in and of itself, confers any sort of blessing, except in Christian experience of it.

  • Jonathan,

    A couple of thoughts:

    – my son, too, suffered greatly at the outset of his life and will always have medical complications due to his birth defect, however, his suffering was what ultimately brought me to my knees and made me realize how much I needed God. I believe that by allowing this suffering to happen, he also allowed my son to touch the lives of thousands of people who have been brought back into communion with the God they had forgotten about.

    – through the magic of internet, a mother who doesn’t understand why suffering exists in this world (and specifically in her child), has made it possible for all of us reading this post to be reminded of the beauty that is found in the Church’s teaching on Redemptive Suffering. Trivial as that may sound, it may be saving the life of someone whose caretaker was strongly considering Euthanasia. I believe strongly that God does have his hand in this suffering.

  • I think the key distinction here is between the redemptive power of God in the face of suffering–which is indeed the vital center of any thorough Christian analysis of the problem of evil–and the temptation to say that because God can redeem suffering, that this means that God “has a hand in this suffering” or causes or needs suffering. The former idea seems right on: Grace takes even the most daunting and hopeless of cases and can use them to convert sinners and lead us back to the mystery of the cross. The latter idea can lead us to a vision of God that is not Love, but sheer Will, a God who willfully inflicts suffering on humans in order to save them. I think that God’s grace can and, with cooperation from the human will, turn suffering toward the good; but to say that therefore God CAUSES such suffering is a tremendously horrifying error. Satan causes and loves suffering; God never intended suffering to be part of our lives, and in the person of Christ, shows us how to destroy it forever.

  • Wayne,

    I do not think I could stomach a God who permitted suffering in order to bring people to Faith. However, God allowing the experience of grace because of the suffering is different. That is God bringing good out of evil, not allowing evil for the purpose of the good.

  • Our first child was born with cystic fibrosis, which brings a 1:4 chance with every pregnancy. We’ve had 5 more without it, and now our newborn probably has it. The Church’s teaching on redemptive suffering pulled me out of an angry, depressed pit of hating God (We are now converts, thank God.). We all suffer. This is not heaven. Like the child in utero who can’t imagine the other world, we have another unimaginable world. This article is wonderful ; I’m having my teens read it and offering our “suffering”, which now seems small compared to this mother, for them, as well. Thank you for taking the time to put this to writing. Warmly, Allison Howell

  • I firmly believe suffering can be redemptive and even worthwhile. Though I would argue suffering is not necessarily always created by God, He most certainly can use suffering for good. Opening ourselves to that possibility can make all the difference. Easy? Most certainly not. But that process could have positive affects on other relationships and be cascading in purpose beyond our even our visibility — not always driven to immediate “faith conversion”, but healing in some many other facets of life. I’ve seen families brought together, activities created, hope nourished.

  • Thank you for writing this. You have given me much to ponder……..for starters: a reminder that my life is not about me.

The Inconsistency of the Left and Required Virginia Ultrasounds

Sunday, February 19, AD 2012

Okay, to be fair, I think this goes both way in American politics.  I’ve always said that everyone is a fiscal conservative until it is “their cause” that gets defunded, and everyone is a fiscal liberal until it is “their tax rate” that gets increased.

Nevertheless, some things ooze such inconsistency that it is almost laughable.  As many are aware, the Virginia state legislature recent passed a bill that requires a woman to have an ultrasound before they may have an abortion.  As you can imagine, the pro-abortion constituency is out in full force over such a perceived “injustice.”  Now, call me crazy, but it seems that such a requirement should at least implicitly be considered under “informed consent.”  And besides, if those on the pro-abortion side are so sure that the fetus growing inside the womb is really just a mass of tissue, then there should be nothing to worry about, right?  Let us not be fooled here – the objection to the ultrasound has nothing to do with the requirement itself – it has much more to do with the fear that this just may actually convince more women that the baby growing inside them actually is a life.

At any rate, an article appeared on Slate.com by Dahlia Lithwick last Thursday that would have had me falling off the couch in hysterics had it not been meant to be actually taken seriously.  It was a great example of how the line between laughter and tears is often fine indeed when reading liberal commentaries.

The first laughable/cry-able moment came when the author implied … no wait, she flat out said it … that such a requirement constitutes an act of rape:

[This] means most women will be forced to have a transvaginal procedure … the law provides that women seeking an abortion in Virginia will be forcibly penetrated for no medical reason. I am not the first person to note that under any other set of facts, that would constitute rape under state law.

Okay, now let’s first note that no-one is forcing any woman to have such an ultra sound; the law merely provides such an action as a pre-requisite for the abortion procedure.  Any woman could alway opt not to have the abortion, and consequently be spare the “violation” of the ultrasound.  The logic here is intellectually dishonest at best, and manipulative at worst.  Under the same logic, we could object to any medical pre-requisite.  Besides, and I am happy to be correct on this, in the event that the individual decides to proceed with the abortion, is not penetration inevitable?  In fact, one could argue that the ultrasound is not a separate procedure but rather the first step in the abortion.

The argument continued,

Evidently the right of conscience for doctors who oppose abortion are a matter of grave national concern. The ethical and professional obligations of physicians who would merely like to perform their jobs without physically violating their own patients are, however, immaterial.

So here we have it … the left refuses to admit that the recent HHS mandate is a violation of conscience for individual business owners and religious organizations, they often even want to eliminate a Catholic hospital’s right to refuse abortion services based on conscientious objections, but now all of a sudden conscience should be a part of the conversation.

Lithwick goes on,

Next month the U.S. Supreme Court will hear argument about the obscene government overreach that is the individual mandate in President Obama’s health care law. Yet physical intrusion by government into the [body] of a pregnant woman is so urgently needed that the woman herself should be forced to pay for the privilege.

Another inconsistency: the Virginia law is a clear overreach of government by requiring an individual to pay to a procedure to which they conscientiously object, yet the ability of the Catholic Church to opt out of paying for practices that they find morally incompatible with its faith is just plain silly.  Am I understanding this right?


You can shame and violate women, while couching it in the language of Justice Anthony Kennedy’s gift that keeps on giving—his opinion in Gonzales v. Carhart. That opinion upheld Congress’ partial-birth abortion ban on the grounds that (although there was no real evidence to support this assumption) some women who have abortions will suffer “severe depression” and “regrets” if they aren’t made to understand the implications of what they have done.

And at the end of the article,

Abortion is still legal in America. Physically invading a woman’s body against her will still isn’t. Let’s not casually pass laws that upend both principles in the name of helping women make better choices.

So, as is commonly stated, nationally legalized abortion is the “law of the land,” so while it is okay for you to personally object to the practice, please don’t try to push that belief on others.  However, even thought the same Court has made the ability of the States to prevent partial-birth abortion the “law of the land” … well, in that case they were just plain wrong.

So which is it, my dear leftist friends?  Is conscientious objection important or isn’t it?  Should individuals be required to pay for procedures they find objectionable or shouldn’t they?  Does the “law of the land” matter or doesn’t it?  It seems to me that the answer depends greatly on the ideology at hand, which in this case is the perceived “right” to abortion on demand.  In other words, we must accept a priori the right to abortion, and then we use any and all arguments available to defend that decision, even if it means speaking out of both side of the mouth at times.

Now, in fairness, it could be asked whether the political right is being just as inconsistent in all three arguments.  Whether this is true or not I leave up to political commentators.  For my own part, I submit that the Catholic position has no such inconsistencies, and here is why.  First, we don’t ground our positions in the law of the land or conscience seen as an unfettered freedom to relieve one’s self from any and all acts.  Rather, we ground our positions in natural law and conscience seen as the freedom to pursue truth and goodness.  Forcing a doctor to perform an abortion is a clear violation of his or her right to act in a way consistent with a belief system.  The act itself is the violation – the Catholic finds the act objectively immoral.  It is not that a Catholic doctor wants to perform abortions in some cases and not in others, it is that he or she never wants to perform them. In requiring an ultrasound for a woman seeking abortions, what act is being found objectively immoral?  Correct me if I am wrong, but an ultrasound, whether external or internal, is a perfectly acceptable medical procedure by both the left and the right.

Second, from a Catholic position, the natural law it the governing principle, not the “law of the land.”  Natural law, inscribed on everyone’s heart, deeply suggests that the taking of a life is intrinsically immoral.  Science has shown over and over again that the “mass of tissue” in the womb of a mother is a life.  Even rudimentary philosophy says that it is a human life.  But returning to the matter of conscience, if we understand that freedom of conscience does not give an individual the right to abstain from any and all acts (for instance, it does not give and individual the ability to refrain from stopping a violent crime taking place before him), then we can see that freedom of conscience does have limits.  The question for the left is: in what do you ground the limits of freedom of conscience?  For Catholics, the answer is clear: natural law.  Therefore, it is a violation of conscience to require the taking of this life.  Yet in supporting the required ultrasound, rather than seeing it as violating conscience, we understand in the greater context of the right to life.

Third, if freedom of conscience is at the service of pursuing truth, then how does giving the doctor and patient more information violate this process?  In other words, if a doctor has the “right” to eliminate the ultrasound from this procedure, the same logic could be used to dismiss all informed consent laws form the books.

Finally, it is always amusing to hear the left decry government regulation in cases such as this.  Somehow the government not only has the right, but the duty, to regulate Wall Street and the Health Care industry in a way that destroys any rational notion of subsidiarity and was never envisioned by the founding fathers, yet when it comes to a required ultrasound before an abortion … well, clearly that is a government overreach.

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16 Responses to The Inconsistency of the Left and Required Virginia Ultrasounds

  • So let’s see if I understand this. The godless liberal left says that a woman’s body must not be violated for an ultrasound prior to having an abortion, but her body may be so violated for that abortion. The left says a doctor may not be required to violate his conscience to perform said ultrasound, but he may be required to violate his conscience to perform said abortion.

    These people have go to be stopped.

  • Wait – an ultrasound is transvaginal? I thought they were extra-uteral…

  • I have always thought that rape in the legal sense was the passing of the human seed and forcing the woman to bear the man’s child without her informed consent. Invasion of privacy is all the rest. A woman seeking an abortion has already consented to the invasion of privacy as you have said. Thank you, Jake Tawney, for the visible window into the hearts of the right and the left.

  • I have had many ultrasounds – none of them was invasive. Everything takes place outside the woman’s body. I don’t know what Ms. Lithwick is talking about, but I don’t think it’s an ultrasound!

  • Correct Meli! I was there for my wife’s ultra sounds when she was carrying our twins and our little girl, and that was the case with her. Apparently there are transvaginal ultrasounds, but they are uncommon.


  • There are two kinds of ultrasounds, and most pregnant couples experience the external kind. From my limited understanding, however, if the baby is too small and they are concerned about finding a heart beat, doctors will perform an internal ultrasound. I am, however, not an expert on this, so I cannot make claims to the original article about whether or not an internal one would be required under the Virginia State law. Maybe someone with a medical background can weigh in here.

  • I also thought that penetrating a woman’s body and not passing the human seed was legally called assault and battery. What is important here is that no person can consent to a crime. NO PERSON CAN CONSENT TO A CRIME without becoming a criminal, whether it is assault and battery on himself or another person. Crime is against the law. The monstrosity going on in homosexual public displays in San Francisco are a horrendous example. A woman’s right to choose cannot include assault and battery on herself. Assault and battery on oneself in not a constitutionally protected freedom.

  • Everything is “rape!” to a doctrinaire feminist ideologue. (I’ve read their books.)

  • I’m watching the end of an episode of “Finding Bigfoot” on Animal Planet HD. Next up is a documentary on the Obama presidency, “Rattlesnake Republic.”

    All that is edifying compared to liberal tripe bombarding us 24/7.

  • Thanks for the warning about next up show. I’m shutting everything off now before the laugh goes.

  • I’m not a medical expert, but transvaginal ultrasound is generally done in the first trimester while the baby is quite small. I’ve had them with all my children to find the heartbeat and establish dates. The doctor likes them because the earlier you can measure the baby, the more accurate the pregnancy dates are. As the pregnancy continues, genetics play a larger role in the size of the baby. I did not have them for any particular reason and I knew my dates exactly, so I get the impression that they are standard procedure in these parts.

  • The blatant misrepresentation of facts in this article is abhorrent. Does Jake Tawney not remember the 9th commandment?! “Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.”

    I am as much against abortions and would hope that we are all working to reduce/eliminate them, but the “facts” offered up in this article are no better than propoganda.

    First, “Okay, now let’s first note that no-one is forcing any woman to have such an ultra sound; the law merely provides such an action as a pre-requisite for the abortion procedure. Any woman could alway opt not to have the abortion, and consequently be spare the “violation” of the ultrasound. The logic here is intellectually dishonest at best, and manipulative at worst. Under the same logic, we could object to any medical pre-requisite. Besides, and I am happy to be correct on this, in the event that the individual decides to proceed with the abortion, is not penetration inevitable? In fact, one could argue that the ultrasound is not a separate procedure but rather the first step in the abortion.”

    FACTS: Abortion does not make penetration inevitable … in fact, many abortions are performed via the abortion pill, in which there is no penetration. One could not “argue” that this was the first step in a medical procedure, unless one was a doctor. And as far as I understand, the Virginia legislature is not! Further, just because penetration might be inevitable, does not all of a sudden make sanctioned rape acceptable. Shall we then go a step further and say that if a woman is going to have an abortion, it is no longer a crime to rape her, because, after all, “penetration is inevitable” … THIS IS ABSURD!

    Next: “Another inconsistency: the Virginia law is a clear overreach of government by requiring an individual to pay to a procedure to which they conscientiously object, yet the ability of the Catholic Church to opt out of paying for practices that they find morally incompatible with its faith is just plain silly. Am I understanding this right?”

    FACTS: You are not understanding this right; the Catholic Church has never been mandated with paying for practices they find morally incompatible. However, they must provide health insurance to their employees, just like anyone else. They do not have to pay for that insurance (and when has providing insurance ever meant that they employer is paying for medical procedures? that is a plainly absurd jump in logic).

    “It is not that a Catholic doctor wants to perform abortions in some cases and not in others, it is that he or she never wants to perform them.”

    FACTS: There is no Catholic doctor anywhere who has ever been forced into performing an abortion. EVER. It is absolutely absurd to suggest that somehow our government is forcing doctors to do medical procedures they don’t want (I guess unless you are Virginia lawmakers). It is no business of anyone other than doctors and the medical industry to dictate which procedures they do and do not do.

    ” Therefore, it is a violation of conscience to require the taking of this life.”

    FACTS: There is absolutely no requirement anywhere, ever, suggested by anyone, that abortion should be required. In fact, that kind of thing happens in China, and will not happen here. To get people fired up by suggesting this is true is an agregious sin, the likes of which would have you banned from some churches. For SHAME!

  • I trust Jake’s “propaganda” far more than I do Sarah’s “facts.” This is going to be a doozy of an election. Lines are drawn. Foaming at the mouth commences.

  • I sometimes wonder if these things are worth responding to, but then I always have trouble stopping myself.

    If you read correctly, I admitted that I was “happy to be corrected” on the inevitability on penetration in an abortion. I remain so, and if it true that most early term abortions are done by pill, then I stand corrected as I said I would. Regarding the insistence that this act constitutes rape, I can only ask that you re-read the original argument. No woman under the Virginia law is forced to have an ultrasound – only a woman who wants to go through with an abortion. It is now a medical pre-requisite for the abortion procedure. Medicine has all sorts of prerequisites for all sorts of procedures. What people seem to be upset about in this case is that it is not a doctor, but the legislature requiring it. Now, one could argue that the legislature does not have the medical expertise to make this call. But with all due respect, a medical profession that advocates for the right to kill a child has, at least in my mind, lost the right to make the call itself. And rest assured, in this particular case, we are dealing specifically with doctors who do in fact support such killing. To say that they have more of a right to make the call on a required procedure is like saying that a dishonest cheat has more or a right to make a call on business decisions just because he has a business background. Quite the contrary – he actually has less of a right to do so.

    Regarding FACT (2), you are highly mistaken. Under the HHS rule, Catholic employers are required to pay for contraception. First, a Catholic employer who is not a hospital or university does not fall anywhere in the “rule.” Thus, he/she must under penalty of law provide insurance that covers contraception. How is that not being required to purchase something that violates his/her conscience? Yet even for those religious organizations (churches, hospitals, etc.) that do fall under the “accommodation”, it is merely a shell game. They are still being required to purchase insurance plans, and the insurers are required to place coverage to contraception in there somehow. Unless you think that the insurance companies will simply eat this cost pro bono, it will in fact be the Catholic organizations that eventually foot the bill. But while we’re on this, why has it all of a sudden become normal to assume that everyone has the “right” to have an employer that provides medical coverage? What if an employer wants to substantially raise the salaries of his employees and then them decided for themselves if they want to purchase coverage? Where in the constitution does it say that people have a right to have their employer pay for medical insurance?

    Regarding Facts (3) and (4), and the SHAME that was leveled against me, take note that I never insinuated that this is currently a requirement. However, to not see that the left is pushing for this is simply not to be informed. There have been numerous suggestions by Democratic politicians and leftist writers that a hospital should be required to provide abortion services, and that doctors should not be able to refuse these services to individuals. I never said that this was a current requirement, but if we are not careful and if we tread lightly through issues like the HHS mandate, I assure you that we will find ourselves there sooner rather than later.

  • I’ll echo Jenny, there are ultrasounds that are done with penetration– as she said, to establish fetal age or similar reasons. I had a c-section, and the doctor I went to first thought I was an idiot who couldn’t count*, so I had to have one for Duchess. I get the impression they’re very common in areas with high rates of lawsuits against doctors.

    After the first trimester, though, it’s much easier and cheaper to use the external one– heck, from memory both of my girls’ hearts were easily audible with the handheld thing they use during the monthly checkups.

    *(I didn’t go in for medical attention until I was three months along, although I knew to the day when Duchess was implanted– thus, he thought I was only one month along; in his defense, he serves mostly Catholic women, yet in 25 years had never heard of someone having a religious objection to being sterilized.)

    There is no Catholic doctor anywhere who has ever been forced into performing an abortion. EVER.

    The proper response to this claim is not allowed in this arena; I will steal Baxter Black’s, instead, and say: bull feces.
    Anyone that is irrational enough to make an expansive claim like this, in a world where the Chinese One Child policy exists, is too ignorant to warrant much of a response.
    As for your “nobody, anywhere wants to require abortion” statement…. Just a few winters back, there was a hospital that claimed to be Catholic yet performed an abortion, and there was a landslide of support for forcing the hospitals to allow them; I can remember various state-level requirements being considered for any hospital that offers maternity to also offer murder of the same children. Rather famously, a Nun went before the legislature (New York?) and informed them that, should such a law be passed, the hospital would be gone.

    In my own state, they’re cooking up a bill that will require that I pay for abortion coverage (for myself and my daughters, since they can be on our insurance until they’re past peak fertility) if we want maternity coverage.

    Oh, but that is somehow OK– forced to pay for it, but don’t worry, you won’t be forced to use it. (Unless you happen to be a gal that’s been declared mentally ill, and a judge orders it and it doesn’t make national news.)

    Kinda odd, Sarah Kline, how you focus on abortion rather than going into forced sterilization. Maybe you do enough about the history to know it went on into the 80s, and are avoiding a losing fight….